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Pharmacological investigation of spreading depression propagation in rat neocortical tissues

von Dr. Aziza El Harrak

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[1.] Aeh/Fragment 006 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-29 22:12:40 Schumann
Aeh, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Smith et al 2006, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 5-10, 12-16
Quelle: Smith et al 2006
Seite(n): 459, Zeilen: l.col: 2ff
It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leao, 1944; Bures et al., 1974). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). [...] This model has been shown to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Bradley et al., 2001). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson and Sykova, 1998). SD appears to affect both the neuronal and the glial cells. The CSD phenomenon is exclusive to the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to involve both the neuronal and the glial cell populations. [...] CSD was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leão, 1944; Bureš, Buresová & Krivánek, 1974). [...]

Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also evokes CSD (Leão, 1944; Zachar & Zacharová, 1963). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of CSD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube & Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001), [...]

Of available methods KCl has thus proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging (Bureš et al., 1974, 1984; Lehmankühler & Richter, 1993; Smith et al., 1998, 2000; Read et al., 1999; Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Kuge et al., 2000) and imaging studies (Gardner-Medwin et al., 1994; Latour et al., 1994;Hasegawa et al., 1995; de Crespigny et al., 1996, 1998; James et al., 1999; Bockhorst et al., 2000; Kuge et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001, 2002). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+])o themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson & Sykova´, 1998).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Aeh/Fragment 006 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-30 06:07:45 PlagProf:-)
Aeh, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Somjen 2001, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
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Hindemith
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Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 17-25
Quelle: Somjen 2001
Seite(n): 1066, 1067, Zeilen: 1066: r.col: last 3 lines; 1067: l.col: 1ff
The first paper on SD, titled "Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex" appeared in 1944, written by a Brazilian neuroscientist, Aristides Leão, working at the Harvard laboratory. Leão wanted to study the electrocorticogram (ECoG) of experimental epilepsy in anesthetized rabbits, but he was distracted from his original goal by an unexpected flattening of the ongoing normal bioelectrical activity that took the place of the anticipated epileptiform field potentials. The silencing of the ECoG trace crept slowly over the cortex, from one recording electrode pair resting on the cortical surface to the one beside it. According to Leão, SD and propagating focal seizures were related phenomena, generated by the same cellular elements, an inference later supported by others. The first, seminal paper on SD, titled “Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex” (213) appeared in 1944, written by a young and unknown Brazilian inves-

[page 1067]

tigator, Aristides Leão, working at the Harvard laboratory of R. S. Morison. Leão wanted to study the cortical electrogram (ECoG) of experimental epilepsy in anesthetized rabbits, but he was distracted from his original goal by an unexpected silencing of the ongoing normal electrical activity that took the place of the anticipated seizure (Fig. 1). The flattening of the ECoG trace crept slowly over the cortex, from one recording electrode pair resting on the cortical surface to the one beside it. According to Leão, SD and propagating focal seizures were related phenomena, generated by the same cellular elements (213), an inference later supported by others (e.g., Ref. 428).


[...]

Anmerkungen

The source is indicated in the bibliographry, but no reference is made in the present context.

Sichter
(Hindemith), PlagProf:-)


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Letzte Bearbeitung dieser Seite: durch Benutzer:PlagProf:-), Zeitstempel: 20140430060925

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