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Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

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[1.] Af/Fragment 028 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-12 21:11:53 WiseWoman
Af, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Müller 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 28, Zeilen: 1-5
Quelle: Müller 2004
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
[The Arab Human Development Report first published in 2002 criticizes the fact that women are] discriminated against both as far as political participation is concerned and in the workplace. I think awareness is spreading in the Islamic world, too, that modernization is crucial if we are to master the challenges of globalization. Technical developments, improved communications and economic globalization mean that no state can wall itself in anymore. The Arab Human Development Report first published in 2002 criticizes the fact that women are discriminated against both as far as political participation is concerned and in the workplace. I think awareness is spreading in the Islamic world, too, that modernization is crucial if we are to master the challenges of globalization. Technical developments, improved communications and economic globalization mean that no state can wall itself in anymore.
Anmerkungen

Continued from the previous page. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Note the use of "I" in this paragraph.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[2.] Af/Fragment 028 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 22:20:36 WiseWoman
Af, Engineer 2002, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 28, Zeilen: 5-38
Quelle: Engineer 2002
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
There is strong criticism of those who work for rights and status of women by conservative Islamists and they are accused of imitating Western feminism. However, those struggling for women’s rights and status in third world countries in general and, in the Islamic countries in particular have to struggle against much greater odds. These odds remain insurmountable even if these women work within the framework of Islam. Many Muslim countries like Kuwait even refuse to give its women right to vote. The Saudi Government does not allow its women to drive even when accompanied by their husbands.

Male domination is not at all Islamic, though it is justified in its name. Men use some selective verses from the Qur’an, ignore their social context and use them to perpetuate their domination. They conveniently ignore the verses empowering women or laying down equality of both the sexes. In fact in verses like 2:219 and 2:228 there is clear statement about equality of both the sexes and yet they are totally ignored and instead they quote verses like 4:34 to establish their domination. Saudi law not allowing women to venture out alone is not Qur’anic but based on a hadith which prohibits women going out alone. Even if the hadith is authentic, as there are thousands of ahadith which are not authentic due to the lack of proper reference, one totally ignores the social conditions then and now. It is interesting to note that while the Saudi Government does not allow women to drive cars the Iranian Government has started exclusive taxi service to be run by women.21

Thus Iranian women can not only drive private cars but can also be a taxi driver. Similarly while the Kuwait Government refuses its women to vote other Muslim countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt and other countries allow them to vote even some Muslim countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh had women prime ministers. How does one explain these contradictory practices? Are their different Islams or there are differing attitudes towards women? Such gross contradictions are really difficult to gloss over in the name of Islam. It all depend either on social conditions of that country or on political exigencies as explained in the earlier part.

It is a fact that Muslim women enjoy differing degree of rights in different Islamic countries. While in Turkey Mustafa Kemal Pasha (1881-1938) introduced secular Swiss code thus according equal rights to both men and women on one hand, and, the total restrictions in Saudi Arabia on the other hand. In other Muslim countries like Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Jordan etc. there is comparatively greater latitude of freedom for women. It is because the rulers in these countries are more liberal towards women.


21 The idea of seclusion also has increased the percentage of women in other jobs, such as taxi driver. Recently twelve taxi agencies have been set up in the holy city of Mashhad; staffed and managed entirely by women, they employ 200 female taxi drivers who own their cars and are provided with cell phones (Zaneh Rouz 2001).

There is strong criticism of those who work for rights of women by conservative Islamists and they are accused of imitating Western feminism. [...]

[...]

And those struggling for women's rights in third world countries in general and, in the Islamic countries in particular have to struggle against much greater odds. These odds remain insurmountable even if these women work within the framework of Islam. Many Muslim countries like Kuwait even refuse to give its women right to vote. The Saudi Government does not allow its women even to drive even when accompanied by their husbands, let alone go out alone in public.

[...] Male domination is not at all Islamic, though it is justified in its name. Men use some selective verses from the Qur'an, ignore their social context and use them to perpetuate their domination. They conveniently ignore the verses empowering women or laying down equality of both the sexes. In fact in verses like 2:219, 2:228 and 33:35 there is clear statement about equality of both the sexes and yet they are totally ignored and instead they quote verses like 4:34 to establish their domination. [...]

[...] Thus the Saudi law not allowing women to venture out alone is not Qur'anic but based on a hadith which prohibits women going out alone.

Even if the hadith is authentic one totally ignores the social conditions then and now. [...]

[...] It is interesting to note that while the Saudi Government does not allow women to drive cars the Iranian Government has started exclusive taxi service to be run by women. Thus Iranian women can not only drive private cars but can also be a taxi driver.

Similarly while the Kuwait Government refuses its women to vote other Muslim countries like Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Egypt and other countries allow them to vote. How does one explain these contradictory practices? Are their different Islams or there are differing attitudes towards women? Thus it is not Islamic sources but men's attitude which matters.

And when Muslim women demand their rights - and Islamic rights at that - they are denounced as western feminists. It is a fact that Muslim women enjoy differing degree of rights in different Islamic countries. While in Turkey Mustafa Kemal Pasha introduced secular Swiss code thus according equal rights to both men and women on one hand, and, the total restrictions in Saudi on the other hand. In other Muslim countries like Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Jordan etc. there is comparatively greater latitude of freedom for women. It is because the rulers in these countries are more liberal towards women.

[...]

Some Muslim countries like Pakistan and Bangla Desh had or have women prime minister and some Muslim countries like Kuwait do not accord women right to vote. Such gross contradictions are really difficult to gloss over in the name of Islam. It all depends either on social conditions of that country or even on political exigencies.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), WiseWoman

[1.] Af/Fragment 028 101
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 13:03:59 Schumann
Af, Bahramitash 2003, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
WiseWoman
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 28, Zeilen: 101-104
Quelle: Bahramitash 2003
Seite(n): 563, Zeilen: 27-32; Paragraph 13 online
21 The idea of seclusion also has increased the percentage of women in other jobs, such as taxi driver. Recently twelve taxi agencies have been set up in the holy city of Mashhad; staffed and managed entirely by women, they employ 200 female taxi drivers who own their cars and are provided with cell phones (Zaneh Rouz 2001).

Zaneh R., 2001: "Nokhostin Agance Taxi Telephony Banevan dar Mashahd Rahandazy Shod," No. 1797.

The idea of seclusion also has increased the percentage of women in other jobs, such as taxi driver. Recently twelve taxi agencies have been set up in the holy city of Mashhad; staffed and managed entirely by women, they employ 200 female taxi drivers who own their cars and are provided with cell phones (Zaneh Rouz 2001).

“Nokhostin Agance Taxi Telephony Banevan dar Mashahd Rahandazy Shod,” Zaneh Rouz, Number 1797.

Anmerkungen

According to the Wikipedia, Zan-e Rooz was a women's weekly magazine published in Tehran [1]. Thus it does not make sense to list it as an author as Af does. Nothing is marked as a direct quote.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), SleepyHollow02


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