FANDOM


Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

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[1.] Af/Fragment 038 10 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 13:02:02 Schumann
Af, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Vanhanen 2004, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 38, Zeilen: 10-20, 101-109
Quelle: Vanhanen 2004
Seite(n): 11-12, 14, Zeilen: 11: 15-28.34; 12:1-2; 14:22-24
It has been very difficult for Pakistan’s political system to become adapted to the requirements of ethnic bias. Since the beginning, Pakistan has been an Islamic state (Ahmed 1993), but its political system is not sufficiently well adapted to linguistic, regional, and other cleavages within the Muslim majority. All major ethnic groups are politically mobilized in Pakistan, which has increased the frequency of conflicts. Many ethnic conflicts24 since independence reflect the failure of the country’s political system to satisfy the aspirations of ethnic groups.

Although attempts were made to regulate ethnic relations through democratic institutions (ethnic provinces and political parties), but democratic institutions failed several times, and ethnic relations have degenerated into violent clashes and separatist movements.


24 The Pashtuns have occasionally rebelled and demanded Pashtunistan, which would include Pashtun areas of Afghanistan, too. Ethnic conflicts in Baluchistan have been more violent than in the NWFP. The Balouch tribes have rebelled against the Pakistani government since 1947. They have demanded greater regional autonomy, or independence. The most serious ethnic conflict has occured in Sindh, where the two major ethnic groups (Sindhis and Muhajirs) struggle for hegemony and territories. The Sindhis do not want to lose the control of their own region to Muhajirs and oppose them (Singh 1986; Ahmed 1993; Europe 2003: 3194-3206; Freedom House 2003: 423-428).


Ahmed, I., 1993: Ethnicity and separatist movements in South Asia, In: H. Lindholm (ed.), The Europe World Year Book 2003, Europe Publications, London and New York.

Freedom, House, 2003: Freedom in the world 2003, A. Karatnycky / A. Piano / A. Puddington (eds.), New York.

Singh, U., 1986: Ethnic conflicts in Pakistan: Sindh as a Factor in Pakistani Politics, In: U. Phadnis, S. D. Muni, and K. Bahadur (eds.), Domestic Conflicts in South Asia. Volume 2: Economic end Ethnic Dimensions, South Asian Publishers, New Delhi.

[page 11]

Pakistan

It has been very difficult for Pakistan's political system to become adapted to the requirements of ethnic nepotism. Since the beginning, Pakistan has been an Islamic state, and discrimination against non-Muslims is built into the system (Ahmed 1993), but its political system is not sufficiently well adapted to linguistic, regional, and other cleavages within the Muslim majority. Unlike Nepal, all major ethnic groups are politically mobilized in Pakistan, which has increased the frequency of conflicts. Many ethnic conflicts since independence reflect the failure of the country's political system to satisfy the aspirations of ethnic groups.

The Pashtuns have occasionally rebelled and demanded Pashtunistan, which would include Pashtun areas of Afghanistan, too. Ethnic conflicts in Baluchistan have been more violent than in the NWFP. The Baluch tribes have rebelled against the Pakistani government since 1947. They have demanded greater regional autonomy, or independence. The most serious ethnic conflict has occured in Sind, where the two major ethnic groups (Sindhis and Mujahirs) struggle for hegemony and territories. [...] The Sindhis does not want to lose the control of their own region to Mujahirs and oppose

[page 12]

them. Some rebellious Sindhi groups have demanded independence (see Singh 1986; Ahmed 1993; Europa 2003: 3194-3206; Freedom House 2003: 423-428).


[page 14]

In Pakistan, attempts were made to regulate ethnic relations through democratic institutions (ethnic provinces and political parties), but democratic institutions failed several times, and ethnic relations have degenerated into violent clashes and separatist movements.


Ahmed, I, 1993. "Ethnicity and Separatist Movements in South Asia," in H. Lindholm (ed.), Ethnicity and Nationalism. Formation of Identity and Dynamics of Conflict in the 1990s. Göteborg: Nordens.

The Europa World Year Book 2003. 2003. London and New York: Europa Publications.

Freedom House. 2003. Freedom in the World 2003. Edited by Adrian Karatnycky, Aili Piano, and Arch Puddington. New York: Freedom House.

Singh, Uma. 1986. "Ethnic Conflicts in Pakistan: Sind as a Factor in Pakistani Politics," in Urmila Phadnis, S.D. Muni, and Kalim Bahadur (eds), Domestic Conflicts in South Asia. Volume 2: Economic end Ethnic Dimensions. New Delhi: South Asian Publishers.

Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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