FANDOM


Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

vorherige Seite | zur Übersichtsseite | folgende Seite
Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Af/Fragment 049 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-04-03 12:40:04 Schumann
Af, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 49, Zeilen: 1 ff. (complete page)
Quelle: Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-2005
Seite(n): 146, 147-148, Zeilen: 146: table 13.3; 147: 1-20.25-27 - 148: 1-12
[Similarly, RAR was 43 percent in 1996-97, increased] to 43.3 percent in 1997-98, decreased to 42.8 percent in 1999-00 and has increased to 43.3 percent in 2002-03 and further to 43.7 percent in 2003-04.

Table 1

Civilian Labor Force, Employed and Unemployed for Pakistan (No. in million)
  1999-2000 2001-02 2003-04
Labor Force 39.4 42.39 45.23
Employed 36.32 38.88 41.75
Unemployed 3.08 3.51 3.48
Source: Labor Force Survey 2001-02 and 2003-04

A comparison of male and female participation rates reveals that the labour force participation rates for females have been increasing over the years and it has increased from 13.72 percent in 1999-00 to 15.93 percent in 2003-04. Multiple factors like increased awareness, better educatinal [sic] opportunities, equal employment opportunities, changing social attitudes, etc are responsible for this. But it still remains less than the male activity rate, which means that their participation in economic activities is also low. On the other hand, male participation rate has seldom wavered and has generally remained steady since the early 90’s.

It is estimated that the agricultural sector has absorbed 17.97 million of the total employed labour force33 (see table 2). On the whole, an increase has been observed in almost all-major industries/sectors gender neutrally. Sector wise break up of employed labour force shows that female labour force participation is on the up for most sectors especially agriculture and fishery workers. It is important to note that the employment of the rural females increased despite a considerable rise in female labour force participation rate. The increase in rural female employment was mainly in the category of unpaid family helpers, which may be due to enhanced growth rates in agriculture in recent years or due to the combined efforts of various NGOs. The distribution of female labour force by major sectors also supports the view that employment gains are concentrated in female unpaid workers, as the largest increase in the female employment is seen in agriculture and allied industries. On the other hand, the increase in urban female employment is mainly in community services, manufacturing and construction industries. Similarly occupational distribution of urban females shows employment increase in the category of unskilled, craft and trade related workers.


33 The employed labour force is defined as all persons of ten years and above who worked at least one hour during the reference period and were either “paid employees or “self-employed””. Based on this definition, the total number of the employed labour force in 2005 is estimated at 43.22 million compared to 42.24 million in 2004. The total number of employed persons in rural areas has increased from 28.98 million in 2004 to 29.65 million in 2005. Similarly, urban employment increased from 14.69 million in 2004 to 15.03 million in 2005. In 2003-04, rural employment (1.98 million increase) has increased more than urban employment (0.89 million). Whereas total employment has also risen considerably from last year (0.71 million increase) (LFS, 2003-04).


Government of Pakistan 2005: Labour force survey 2003-04, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Islamabad.

[page 146]


Table 13.3 Civilian Labor Force, Employed and Unemployed for Pakistan (No. in million)
  1999-2000 2001-02 2003-04
Labor Force 39.4 42.39 45.23
Employed 36.32 38.88 41.75
Unemployed 3.08 3.51 3.48
Source: Labor Force Survey 2001-02 and 2003-04


[page 147]

Similarly, RAR was 43 percent in 1996-97, increased to 43.3 percent in 1997-98, decreased to 42.8 percent in 1999-00 and has increased to 43.3 percent in 2002-03 and further to 43.7 percent in 2003-04.

A comparison of male and female participation rates reveals that the labour force participation rates for females have been increasing over the years and it has increased from 13.72 percent in 1999-00 to 15.93 percent in 2003-04. Multiple factors like increased awareness, better educational opportunities, equal employment opportunities, changing social attitudes, etc are responsible for this. But it still remains less than the male activity rate, which means that their participation in economic activities is also low. On the other hand, male participation rate has seldom wavered and has generally remained steady since the early 90’s.

Employment Situation

The employed labour force is defined as all persons of ten years and above who worked at least one hour during the reference period and were either “paid employees or “self-employed””. Based on this definition, the total number of the employed labour force in 2005 is estimated at 43.22 million compared to 42.24 million in 2004. The total number of employed persons in rural areas has increased from 28.98 million in 2004 to 29.65 million in 2005. Similarly, urban employment increased from 14.69 million in 2004 to 15.03 million in 2005. [...] In 2003-04, rural employment (1.98 million increase) has increased more than urban employment (0.89 million). Whereas total employment has also risen considerably from last year (0.71 million increase).

[page 148]

Employed Labour Force by Sectors

The agricultural sector has absorbed 17.97 million of the total employed labour force. On the whole, an increase has been observed in almost all-major industries/sectors gender neutrally. Sector wise break up of employed labour force shows that female labour force participation is on the up for most sectors especially agriculture and fishery workers. It is important to note that the employment of the rural females increased despite a considerable rise in female Labour Force Participation Rate. The increase in rural female employment was mainly in the category of unpaid family helpers, which may be due to enhanced growth rates in agriculture in recent years or due to the combined efforts of various NGO. The distribution of female labour force by major sectors also supports the view that employment gains are concentrated in female unpaid workers, as the largest increase in the female employment is seen in Agriculture and allied industries. On the other hand, the increase in urban female employment is mainly in community services, manufacturing and construction industries. Similarly occupational distribution of urban females show employment increase in category of unskilled, craft and trade related workers.

Anmerkungen

Continued from previous page. Af kind of names her source (cp. comments on this reference in Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-2005). Nevertheless, nothing hints at this page having been taken verbatim from the source, since nothing has been marked as a citation.

Mark also that table 1 has been copied and not been quoted (see references therein).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


vorherige Seite | zur Übersichtsseite | folgende Seite
Letzte Bearbeitung dieser Seite: durch Benutzer:Schumann, Zeitstempel: 20170403124233

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.