FANDOM


Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

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[1.] Af/Fragment 063 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 18:03:33 Graf Isolan
Af, Fragment, Gesichtet, Khan and Qureshi 1996, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 63, Zeilen: 19-37
Quelle: Khan and Qureshi 1996
Seite(n): 3, 4, Zeilen: 3:12-19; 4:6-8.9-18
The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1990-91 (for recent figures, see chapter 4) provides conclusive evidence of increasing female employment in the informal labor market (Kazi 1993 and Kazi 1991). The informal labor market is characterized by lack of regulation, lack of security in conditions of employment and ease of entry. It includes small, unregulated enterprises, often family-managed or self-employed enterprises that use traditional technology and labor-intensive methods (Qadeer 1983). This segment absorbs most of the available unskilled and uneducated women in urban areas in Pakistan (Kazi 1993).

Paradoxically, women are portrayed as economically unproductive (Habib 1985) and as highly dependent on their husbands, sons and other male members of the family for economic resources and support. The influence of informal-sector work on the status of women in the patriarchal Pakistani households largely remains unexplored. Studies however, have been conducted in Asia and they provide conflicting findings. In the Philippines, women’s contribution to household income was not associated with greater household power (Alcantara 1990), nor did the gainful employment of women through carpet weaving in Iran bring a change in the social conditions of those women (Afshar 1985). Studies in East and South East Asia report that a woman’s financial contribution to her family’s resources is one of the factors that enhances her status within the family and increases her decision making capacity.


Alcantara, A. N., 1990: Gender differentiation: public vs. private power in family decision-making in the Philippines. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Habib, M., 1985: New images for women needed in Pakistan. People 12(2): 20-1

Kazi, S. / Raza, B., 1991: Duality of female employment in Pakistan, Pakistan Development Review 1991 Winter 30 (4 pt 2): 733-40.

Kazi, S. / Sathar, Z. A., 1993: Women in the urban informal labor market in Pakistan: Some economic and demographic implications. International Population Conference.

Qadeer, M. A., 1983: Urban economy. In: Qadeer M. A. (ed) Urban Development in The Third World: Internal Dynamics of Lahore, Pakistan pp113-75. Praeger Publishers, New York.

[page 3]

The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1990-91 provides conclusive evidence of increasing female employment in the informal labor market (Kazi 1993 and Kazi 1991). The informal labor market is characterized by lack of regulation, lack of security in conditions of employment and ease of entry. It includes small, unregulated enterprises, often family-managed or self-employed enterprises that use traditional technology and labor-intensive methods (Qadeer 1983). This segment absorbs most of the available unskilled and uneducated women in urban areas in Pakistan (Kazi 1993).

[page 4]

Paradoxically, women are portrayed as economically unproductive (Habib 1985) and as highly dependent on their husbands, sons and other male members of the family for economic resources and support.

There has been little systematic study about the informal labor market in Pakistan. The influence of informal-sector work on the status of women in the patriarchal Pakistani households largely remains unexplored. Studies however, have been conducted in Asia and they provide conflicting findings. In the Philippines, women’s contribution to household income was not associated with greater household power (Alcantara 1990), nor did the gainful employment of women through carpet weaving in Iran bring a change in the social conditions of those women (Afshar 1985). Studies in East and South East Asia report that a woman’s financial contribution to her family’s resources is one of the factors that enhances her status within the family (Khoo 1984) and increases her decision making capacity (Sinha 1988).


Alcantara A. N. (1990) Gender differentiation: public vs. private power in family decision-making in the Philippines. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Habib M. (1985) New images for women needed in Pakistan. People 12(2): 20-1.

Kazi S. and Raza B. (1991) Duality of female employment in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review 1991 Winter 30 (4 pt 2): 733-40.

Kazi S. and Sathar Z. A. (1993) Women in the urban informal labor market in Pakistan: some economic and demographic implications. International Population Conference Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 2: 467-79. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Liege - Belgium.

Qadeer M. A. (1983) Urban Economy. In: Qadeer M. A. (ed) Urban Development in The Third World: Internal Dynamics of Lahore, Pakistan pp113-75. Praeger Publishers, New York.

Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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