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Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

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[1.] Af/Fragment 078 06 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 13:18:21 Schumann
Af, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Sharif 2000

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 78, Zeilen: 6-20
Quelle: Sharif 2000
Seite(n): 1 (internet resource), Zeilen: -
The women in Pakistan have been constantly complaining of having being isolated from the mainstream of society. Women feel disillusioned on being maltreated by the male-oriented set up in Pakistan. They strongly claim that if they are given a chance, they can contribute more positively towards the development of all social aspects. Numerically the women in Pakistan are almost equal to men. They are equal in potential as the men. The Pakistani women live in the most diversified location of the tribal, feudal or urban environments. She can be a highly qualified and self-confident professional or a diffident peasant toiling along with her men-folk.

In the areas like NWFP and Balochistan, life is governed and regulated by strict beliefs and behavioural patterns. A woman has no say in any aspect of her life, including her marriage. In the populated provinces of Sindh and Punjab, a woman may keep her connections with her family after marriage. She expects support from her brothers and father in case of separation and divorce from her husband. In Punjab and Sindh, women are seen working in the fields with their men-folk collecting fuels and in some cases working on the construction sites shifting material from one place to another.

The women in Pakistan have been constantly complaining of having being isolated from the mainstream of society. Women feel disillusioned on being maltreated by the male-oriented set up in Pakistan. They strongly claim that if they are given a chance, they can contribute more positively towards the development of all social aspects.

[...]

Numerically the women in Pakistan are almost equal to men. They are equal in potential as the men. The Pakistani women live in the most diversified location of the tribal, feudal or urban environments. She can be a highly qualified and self-confident professional or a diffident peasant toiling along with her men-folk.

[...]

In the areas like NWFP and Balochistan, life is governed and regulated by strict beliefs and behavioral patterns. A woman has no say in any aspect of her life, including her marriage. In the populated provinces of Sindh and Punjab, a woman may keep her connections with her family after marriage. She expect [sic] support from her brothers and father in case of separation and divorce from her husband. In Punjab and Sindh, women are seen working in the fields with their men-folk collecting fuels and in some cases working on the construction sites shifting material from one place to another.

Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[2.] Af/Fragment 078 21 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-22 14:22:01 Graf Isolan
Af, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Naqvi and Shahnaz 2002, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 78, Zeilen: 21-36
Quelle: Naqvi and Shahnaz 2002
Seite(n): 497, 507 (Internet 3-4, 12), Zeilen: 497:1-5, 11-20; 507:20-22 (Internet: 3:12-16.22-27-4:1-4; 12:13-15)
Some studies in Pakistan analyzed the effects of selected demographic and socioeconomic variables on labour force participation (LFP) in the four provinces of Pakistan. The results indicate that work participation is inversely associated with child-women ratio and nuclear family type. Marital status, dependency ratio and literacy rates are found to have a positive relation with LFP.

Kozel and Alderman (1990) studied the factors determining work participation and labor supply decision in the urban areas of Pakistan. Similarly, Rashid, Lodhi and Chishti (1989) investigated different demographic and socio-economic factors of women’s labor force participation behaviour in their study in Karachi. Empirical results of both the studies indicate that LFP rate rises with increase in the expected earning, wages and level of education. The presence of male members in the family tends to decrease the likelihood that a woman will work, while the presence of other women (aged 7 years and above) tend to increase the likelihood of women employment. LFP rate also declines with domestic and foreign remittances.

A study conducted by Z. F. Naqvi and L. Shahnaz (2002) shows that approximately 10% married women are less likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves [and 3% less likely to be consulted by the other members of the household in making their employment decision.]


Kozel, V. / Alderman, H., 1990: “Factors determining work participation and labor [sic] supply decisions in Pakistan’s Urban Areas”, The Pakistan Development Review, 29,1.

Naqvi, Z. F. / Shahnaz, L., 2002: How do women decide to work in Pakistan, The World Bank, World Development Indicators, Washington D.C.

Rashid. et al., 1989: “Women labor [sic] participation behavior [sic]: A case study of Karachi”, The Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, 8 (2).

[page 497]

Shah et al. (1976) analyzed the effects of selected demographic and socio-economic variables on LFP in the four provinces of Pakistan. The results indicated that work participation is inversely associated with child-women ratio and nuclear family type. Marital status, dependency ratio and literacy rates are found to have positive relation with LFP.

[...]

Kozel and Alderman (1990) studied the factors determining work participation and labor supply decision in the urban areas of Pakistan by using OLS regression as well as a Tobit model. Similarly, Rashed, Lodhi and Chisti (1989) investigate different demographic and socio-economic factors of women’s labor force participation behaviour in their study for Karachi using probit model. Empirical results of both the studies indicate that LFP rate rises with increase in the expected earning, wages and level of education. The presence of male members in the family tends to decrease the likelihood that a woman will work, while the presence of other women (aged 7 years and above) tend to increase the likelihood of women employment. LFP rate also declines with domestic and foreign remittances.

[page 507]

Approximately 10 percent married women are less likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves and 3% less likely to be consulted by the other members of the household in making their employment decision.


Kozel, V. and Alderman, H. 1990. “Factors Determining Work Participation and Labour Supply Decisions in Pakistan’s Urban Areas”, The Pakistan Development Review, 29:1, 1–18.

Rashid, Lodhi, and Chishti (1989) Women Labour Participation Behaviour: A Case Study of Karachi. The Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics 8:2.

Shah, N. M. (1986) Changes in Women Role in Pakistan: Are the Volume and Pace Adequate? The Pakistan Development Review 25:3.

Anmerkungen

Naqvi and Shahnaz (2002) is only mentioned in the final paragraph of this page. The reference given is said to be published by the World Bank1, but Naqvi and Shahnaz published in The Pakistan Development Review. It is not mentioned that the previous two paragraphs have also been taken from this source word-for-word.

Af wrongly americanizes one of the titles of the purported sources. (The other americanization in the title of the article by Kozel and Aldermancan (1999) can already be found in the internet version of that article.)


1 The wrong attribution of publisher is perhaps caused by a misreading of the References in an electronic version of the article by Naqvi and Shahnaz, which reads "The World Bank, 2002, World Development Indicators, Washington, D. C."

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), WiseWoman


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