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Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan

von Prof. Dr. Amber Ferdoos

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[1.] Af/Fragment 079 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-22 20:14:54 Graf Isolan
Af, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Naqvi and Shahnaz 2002, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 79, Zeilen: 1-15
Quelle: Naqvi and Shahnaz 2002
Seite(n): Internet 12, 13, Zeilen: 12:13-20; 13:8-17
[A study conducted by Z. F. Naqvi and L. Shahnaz (2002) shows that approximately 10% married women are less likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves] and 3% less likely to be consulted by the other members of the household in making their employment decision. This negative correlation is understandable in Pakistani society that husbands will have ‘a say’ in their spouse’s decision to enter the work force especially if it conflicts with their roles as a wife or a mother. It is generally accepted that in Pakistani society, the husband’s approval or disapproval is an important factor in whether a wife will perform a certain activity or not (Shah, 1986).

In Pakistan, the place of residence matters a lot, because of the traditions and customs that prevail especially in the rural areas. People cannot be against these circumstances although having education or other exposure. In rural areas a very small number of women are likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves while in most of the cases their decision are conducted by other members of the household.

Socio-economic status of the household is an important factor in determining women status among the households. It is generally believed that women’s decision to enter the work force are caused by a low level of income available to them and their entry into the labor force is necessitated by their lack of income.


Naqvi, Z. F. / Shahnaz, L., 2002: How do women decide to work in Pakistan, The World Bank, World Development Indicators, Washington D.C.

Shah, N. M., 1986: Introduction In: Shah N. M.(ed) Pakistani women: a socioeconomic and demographic profile: 1-49. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.

[page 12]

Approximately 10% married women are less likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves and 3% less likely to be consulted by the other members of the household in making their employment decision. These results are also highly statistically significant. This negative correlation is understandable in Pakistani society that husbands will have ‘a say’ in their spouse’s decision to enter the work force especially if it conflicts with their roles as a wife or a mother. It is generally accepted that in Pakistani society, the husband’s approval or disapproval is an important factor in whether a wife will perform a certain activity or not [Shah, (1986)].

[page 13]

In Pakistan, the place of residence matters a lot, because of the traditions and customs that prevail especially in the rural areas. People can not be against these circumstances although having education or other exposure. In rural areas 3.4% women are less likely to decide their employment decisions by themselves, their decision are conducted by other members of the household. The coefficient of rural area is negative and statistical significant.

Socio-economic status of the household is also an important factor in determining women status among the households. It is generally believed that women’s decision to enter the work force are caused by a low level of income available to them [Hamid, (1991)] and their entry into the labor force is necessitated by their lack of income.


Shah, N. M. (1986) Changes in Women Role in Pakistan: Are the Volume and Pace Adequate? The Pakistan Development Review 25:3.

Anmerkungen

Continued from previous page. Naqvi and Shahnaz (2002) is only mentioned in the final paragraph of the previous page. The reference given is said to be published by the World Bank1, but Naqvi and Shahnaz published in The Pakistan Development Review.

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

The reference to Hamid (1991) is missing in Af. Probably this is because Naqvi and Shahnaz have forgotten the corresponding entry in their references.


1 The wrong attribution of publisher is perhaps caused by a misreading of the References in an electronic version of the article by Naqvi and Shahnaz, which reads "The World Bank, 2002, World Development Indicators, Washington, D. C."

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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