FANDOM


OverviewBearbeiten

  • Problematic text parallels can be found in the following chapters (state of analysis: 29 November 2017):
  • Part A - Introduction [beg.] (p. 1): page 1
  • I. An ever Closer Union – Main Steps of the European Integration Process (p. 1-6): pages 5, 6
  • II. An ever Broader Union – The Unfinished Enlargement Process (p. 6-10): pages 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
  • Part B - Background
  • I. The Idea of Europe (p. 12-14): pages 12, 13, 14
  • II. The open Question of the European Constitution (p. 14-16): pages 14, 15, 16
  • III. Treaty of Maastricht – European Union [beg.] (p. 16-18): pages 16, 17
  • 2. Space of Freedom, Security and Justice (p. 21-22): pages 21, 22
  • V. Treaty of Nice (p. 24-26): page 25 f.
  • VI. The Mandate of the Laeken Summit (p. 26): page 26
  • VII. Treaty of Lisbon (p. 26-28): page 28
  • VIII. Preliminary Conclusions (p. 28-29): pages 28, 29
  • Part C - The EU in the International Context
  • I. Legal Personality of the EU [beg.] (p. 30-33): pages 32, 33
  • II. Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • 1. First Steps (p. 38-39): pages 38, 39
  • 2. EU-Russian Summit in St. Petersburg (p. 39-41): page 40
  • 3. Proposals of the European Convention for the Common Foreign and Defence Policy (p. 41-46): pages 41, 42, 43, 046
  • 4. International Recognition of the EU as a Partner in Foreign and Security Policy (p. 47-48): pages 47, 48 – [completely]
  • 5. Representation of the EU in the Field of CFSP (p. 48-49): page 48 f.
  • III. Institutional and Procedural Aspects
  • 1. Institutional Aspects [beg.] (p. 49-51): pages 49, 50, 51
  • b) Peace Keeping Missions, Petersburg Matters (p. 53-57): pages 53, 54, 55
  • 2. The Need for Coordination with International Organizations (p. 57-58): pages 57, 58
  • a) United Nations (UN) (p. 59-60): page 60
  • 3. Procedural Aspects
  • a) The problem of Unanimity (p. 63-64): pages 63, 64
  • b) Intergovernmentalism versus Supranationalism (p. 64-65): pages 64, 65 – [completely]
  • IV. Preliminary Conclusions (p. 65): page 65
  • Part D - Concepts of National Sovereignty
  • I. Different views of National Sovereignty [beg.] (p. 66): page 66
  • 1. France (p. 66-68): pages 66, 67 f. – [completely]
  • 3. United Kingdom (p. 69-70): pages 69, 70 – [completely]
  • Part E - Concepts for and Main Stages of the European Integration
  • I. Cold War Period
  • 1. First Integration Ideas in the Post War Period (p. 79-80): pages 79, 80
  • 2. The Start of the Cold War and its Influence on the Integration Idea (p. 80-81): page 80 f. – [almost completely (except last sentence)]
  • 4. Rome Treaties [beg.] (p. 82-83): pages 82, 83
  • b) Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Arms Coalition – the Foundation of Euratom (p. 84): page 84 – [completely]
  • c) The Concept of the Internal Market (p. 84-85): pages 84, 85
  • II. The Fall of the Berlin Wall and the End of the Cold War – Effects for the Integration Process [beg.] (p. 87-88): page 87
  • 1. Re-unification of Germany (p. 88): page 88
  • 3. Membership Option in the “Europe Agreements” (p. 89-90): pages 89, 90
  • III. Process of the Eastern Enlargement
  • 1. Copenhagen Criteria and the Integration Concept behind it (p. 90-91): pages 90, 91 – [completely]
  • 2. The Preparation for Enlargement (p. 91-92): pages 91, 92
  • 4. The First Enlargement Wave in May 2004 (p. 93): page 93
  • 5. The Second Enlargement Wave in January 2007 (p. 94): page 94
  • IV. On the Way to a European Constitution
  • 1. First Proposal of the European Parliament, 1985 (p. 95-96): pages 95, 96 – [completely]
  • 3. The European Council in Laeken the Role of the EU in the Global Context (p. 97): page 97 – [completely]
  • 6. A Never Ending Ratification Process: Replacement of the Treaty on a Constitution for Europe by the Lisbon Treaty? (p. 99-101): pages 99, 100
  • 7. New Ideas for the Role of the EU in Europe and in the World (p. 101): page 101
  • V. Preliminary Conclusions (p. 101-102): pages 101, 102
  • Part F - Turbulent Wars in the Western-Balkans
  • I. The End of the Cold War in Europe as a Starting Signal for the Hot Wars in the Territory of Former Yugoslavia (p. 103-104): pages 103, 104
  • II. The Role of the EU and EU Members States in the Wars in the Territory of Former Yugoslavia (p. 104-105): pages 104, 105
  • III. Wars in Former Yugoslavia and their Impact on the Concepts for European Integration (p. 105-107): pages 105, 106, 107
  • IV. Lack of Capability of EU to impose a Military Solution and the Resulting Loss of Credibility within Europe and in the World (p. 107-108): pages 107, 108 – [completely]
  • V. UN Failure to Succeed Resolving Conflict (p. 108-109): pages 108, 109
  • VI. Srebrenica – Shame of the UN (p. 109-110): pages 109, 110
  • VII. NATO Military Intervention under the Lead of the USA (p. 110-111): page 111 – [almost completely (except first sentence)]
  • VIII. Dayton Conference and the End of the War in Bosnia Herzegovina (p. 111-112): page 112
  • IX. The Failure to Reach Agreement in the Ramboulliet Conference and NATO Intervention in the War of Kosovo (p. 112-115): pages 113, 114, 115
  • X. Preliminary Conclusion: Stabilization Process and Future Perspective (p. 115-116): pages 115, 116 – [almost completely (except 1 sentence)]
  • Part G - First Steps for the Hope and the Future for the Western-Balkans
  • I. Cologne Council (p. 117-118): pages 117, 118
  • II. Zagreb Summit (p. 118-119): page 119
  • III. Lisbon Summit (the European Council in Santa Maria da Feira) (p. 120): page 120
  • IV. Thessalonica Summit (p. 121): page 121
  • Part H - Concepts for a New Peaceful Order in the Western-Balkans
  • II. Single Stabilization and Association Agreements (p. 123-124): pages 123, 124
  • III. Tracking Mechanism as a New Model of EU Instruments (p. 124-125): pages 124, 125
  • V. New Perspectives for Minorities (p. 126-127): page 126
  • VI. Economic Prosperity (p. 127): page 127 – [almost completely (except first sentence)]
  • VII. Financial Assistance (p. 127-128): pages 127, 128 – [almost completely (except tab.)]
  • VIII. Partnership Agreements as a Support to Fulfil the Membership Criteria (p. 128-129): page 128
  • IX. A New Enlargement Criteria – Absorption Capacity (p. 129-130): pages 129, 130 – [completely]
  • X. Preliminary Conclusions (p. 130-131): pages 130, 131 – [completely]
  • Part I - Conclusions and Perspectives
  • II. Two Post War Scenarios – Europe as a Model for Keeping Peace? (p. 133-134): pages 133, 134
  • III. Peace Not Onlys as Abstention of War and Terrorism – Economic Prosperity, Healthy Environment and High Employment Rates as a Necessary Fundament for Peace (p. 134-136): pages 134, 135, 136 – [completely]
  • IV. Perspectives for Citizenship in Europe (p. 136-137): page 136.

Prominent sourcesBearbeiten

  • Calin (2003) is the source of more than a page of literally copied text in the "Conclusions and Perspectives" chapter at the end of the thesis. Calin (2003) is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis.
  • Chalmers et al. (2006) is the source for copied text in different parts of the thesis. Sometimes the source is mentioned, sometimes not, but never are literal quotes marked as such.
  • 27 of the 63 sources found for the text parallels are not mentioned in the thesis at all.

Prominent findingsBearbeiten

  • Copied text can also be found in sections that are entitled "conclusions" or "preliminary conclusions", e.g.:
  • Fragment 041 09: large parts of a page have been taken almost verbatim from a brochure that has not been mentioned in the thesis anywhere. During the copying procedure a word has been forgotten resulting in a meaningless sentence.
  • Fragment 091 01: a whole page has been taken from an academic paper that has not been mentioned anywhere in the thesis – including all references to the literature.

Other observationsBearbeiten

  • The author knows how to cite correctly: The pages 51-52 are made up almost entirely by literal quotes that are correctly marked as such. As another example, on page 129 f. one can find:
The Commission notes that "the EU's absorption capacity is determined by the development of the EU's policies and institutions, and by the transformation of applicants into well-prepared Member States. The capacity of would-be members to accede to the Union is rigorously assessed by the Commission on the basis of strict conditionality. Integration capacity is about whether the EU can take in new members at a given moment or in a given period, without jeopardizing the political and policy objectives established by the Treaties."426
______
426 European Commission, Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2006-2007, including annexed Special Report on the EU's Capacity to integrate New Members, COM(2006) 649 final, 8.11.2006, p. 23.
  • On page 130 f. one finds a section entitled "X. Preliminary Conclusions" and accordingly would expect to find some conclusions. But the sections consists entirely of literal quotes from European commission papers after five lines of general introduction that are also not original thinking of the author (see Fragment 130 01).
  • The regulations governing dissertations (= "Promotionsordnung", PDF) valid at the time of submission demand the following:
§ 2 Promotionsleistungen
"(2) Die Dissertation muss wissenschaftlichen Ansprüchen genügen und einen Beitrag zum Fortschritt der rechtswissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis liefern.
(3) Die Dissertation muss eine selbständige Leistung sein. [...]"
§ 10 Zulassungsantrag
"(3) Dem Antrag sind beizufügen: [...]
3. die schriftliche Versicherung: 'Ich habe die Arbeit selbständig verfasst. Ich habe nur die von mir angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel für die Ausarbeitung der vorgelegten Arbeit benutzt und die aus den benutzten Werken wörtlich oder inhaltlich übernommenen Stellen als solche kenntlich gemacht'."
§ 19 Ordnung des Verfahrens und Entziehung des Titels
"(2) Der Doktorgrad kann nachträglich nur aberkannt werden, wenn sich herausstellt, dass er durch Täuschung erlangt worden ist. Über die Aberkennung entscheidet auf Antrag des Fachbereichs der Akademische Senat."

StatisticBearbeiten

  • Currently there are 142 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 81 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 61 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
  • The publication has 137 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 100 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 73%. The 137 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
Percentage text parallels Number of pages
No text parallels documented 37
0%-50% text parallels 50
50%-75% text parallels 27
75%-100% text parallels 23
From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 28% of the main part of the publication.


IllustrationBearbeiten

The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:

  • grau="Komplettplagiat" (copy & paste): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
  • rot="Verschleierung" (disguised plagiarism): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
  • gelb="Bauernopfer" (pawn sacrifice): the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or the closeness of the copy to the source is not made clear by the reference.

Ama col

(state of analysis: 29 November 2017)

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