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Reconsolidation: The effects of dopamine receptors on spreading depression in rat neocortical tissues

von Dr. Anna Maria Haarmann

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[1.] Amh/Fragment 005 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-06 21:40:09 Schumann
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, Gorji 2001, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 1-3, 5-15
Quelle: Gorji 2001
Seite(n): 34, Zeilen: l.col: 1-4, 7-23
Introduction

Spreading depression (SD) is a propagating wave of depolarisation associated by a depression of the neuronal bioelectrical activity for a period of minutes. [...] SD appears first at the stimulated site and spreads out in all directions at the velocity of 2–3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression. A crucial manifestation of SD is a propagating negative potential with an amplitude of 10–30 mV and a duration of more than 0.5–1 min, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive fluctuation of variable amplitude and duration. Underlying this cellular depolarisation is a dramatic change in the distribution of micromilieu ions between extra- and intracellular compartments. Potassium and proton release from the cells, while sodium, calcium and chloride enter together with water causing cells to swell and the volume of the extracellular compartment to be decreased. SD is accompanied by an increase of glucose utilization and O2 consumption. Recovery of SD depends on energy metabolism.

1. Introduction

Spreading depression (SD) is a self-propagating front of depolarization associated by a depression of the neuronal bioelectrical activity for a period of minutes. [...] It appears first at the stimulated site and spreads out in all directions at the velocity of 2-3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression [243]. A necessary manifestation of SD is a propagating extracellular negative potential with an amplitude of 10-30 mV and a duration of more than 0.5-1 min, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive deflection of variable amplitude and duration. Underlying this neuro-glial depolarization is a dramatic change in the distribution of ions between extra- and intracellular spaces. K+ and H+ release from the cells, while Na+, Ca2+ and Cl- enter together with water [152,166,222] causing cells to swell and the volume of the extracellular compartment to be reduced. SD is accompanied by an increase of glucose utilization and O2 consumption [47,283]. Recovery of SD depends on energy metabolism [47].


[...]

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The source is not mentioned.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Amh/Fragment 005 16 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-06 21:40:48 Schumann
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Somjen 2001, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 16-24
Quelle: Somjen 2001
Seite(n): 1066-1067, Zeilen: 1066:right col. 41-43 - 1067:left col. 1-12
The first paper on SD, titled "Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex" appeared in 1944, written by a young Brazilian investigator, Aristides Leão, working at the Harvard laboratory. Leão wanted to study the electrocorticogram (ECoG) of experimental epilepsy in anesthetized rabbits, but he was distracted from his original goal by an unexpected flattening of the ongoing normal bioelectrical activity that took the place of the anticipated epileptiform field potentials.The silencing of the ECoG trace crept slowly over the cortex, from one recording electrode pair resting on the cortical surface to the one beside it. According to Leão, SD and propagating focal seizures were related phenomena, generated by the same cellular elements, an inference later supported by others. [page 1066]

The first, seminal paper on SD, titled “Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex” (213) appeared in 1944, written by a young and unknown Brazilian inves-

[page 1067]

tigator, Aristides Leão, working at the Harvard laboratory of R. S. Morison. Leão wanted to study the cortical electrogram (ECoG) of experimental epilepsy in anesthetized rabbits, but he was distracted from his original goal by an unexpected silencing of the ongoing normal electrical activity that took the place of the anticipated seizure (Fig. 1). The flattening of the ECoG trace crept slowly over the cortex, from one recording electrode pair resting on the cortical surface to the one beside it. According to Leão, SD and propagating focal seizures were related phenomena, generated by the same cellular elements (213), an inference later supported by others (e.g., Ref. 428).


213. LEÃO AAP. Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 7: 359–390, 1944.

428. VAN HARREVELD A AND STAMM JS. Spreading cortical convulsions and depressions. J Neurophysiol 16: 352–366, 1953.

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Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[3.] Amh/Fragment 005 25 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-06 21:41:28 Schumann
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, Gorji 2001, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Gorji 2001
Seite(n): 34, Zeilen: l.col: 24-29, 33-38
This phenomenon has been studied in vivo in several animal species and in vitro in brain slices and in retinal preparations under different experimental conditions. It has been also observed in human neocortical tissue in vitro and in human hippocampus as well as striatum and neocortex in vivo. SD can be regularly initiated if the tissue susceptibility is artificially raised. Hypoglycemia and hypoxia as well as changing the extracellular ionic micromilieu by applying solutions with increased K+, decreased NaCl or with the Cl- of the latter replaced by certain other anions lower the threshold. This phenomenon has been studied in vivo in several animal species and in vitro in brain slices and in retinal preparations under various experimental conditions [47]. It has been also observed in human neocortical tissue in vitro [16,17,149] and in human hippocampus as well as striatum [408] and neocortex [272] in vivo.[...]

SD can be regularly initiated if the tissue susceptibility is artificially raised. Hypoglycemia and hypoxia as well as changing the extracellular ionic micromilieu by applying solutions with increased K+, decreased NaCl or with the Cl- of the latter replaced by certain other anions lower the threshold.


[...]

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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