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Reconsolidation: The effects of dopamine receptors on spreading depression in rat neocortical tissues

von Dr. Anna Maria Haarmann

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[1.] Amh/Fragment 010 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-06 20:27:29 Hindemith
Amh, Eikermann-Haerter and Moskowitz 2008, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 1-19
Quelle: Eikermann-Haerter and Moskowitz 2008
Seite(n): 297, Zeilen: left col. 38ff - right col. 1ff
Unlike an epileptic seizure, which spreads asynchronously to activate adjacent brain, SD begins within a synchronously activated brain space.

In experimental animals, SD stimulates ipsilateral trigeminal axons that surround cortical blood vessels. SD causes a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier by mechanisms dependent on matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, neocortical SD causes ipsilateral extravasation of plasma proteins in dura mater, serving as an experimental marker of trigeminal nerve activation; it also induces c-Fos expression within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. These findings and a transcription MRI study suggest that intense cortical perturbations like repeated SD can open the blood–brain barrier, thereby activating the trigeminovascular system. SD releases chemicals such as H+, K+, nitric oxide, and neurotransmitters into the extracellular space. It has been hypothesized that released molecules reach the pial surface by diffusion and accumulate in proximity to trigeminovascular afferents. Extracellular K+ levels about 60 mmol/l were measured in the pial space during SD.

Consistent with an upstream role for SD, prolonged application of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses SD in rats as a proposed mechanism of action. In line with the growing clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic drugs is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and propranolol on SD.

Unlike an epileptic seizure, which spreads asynchronously to activate adjacent brain, CSD begins within a synchronously activated brain space [75].

In experimental animals, CSD stimulates ipsilateral trigeminal axons that surround cortical blood vessels [7]. CSD causes a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier by mechanisms dependent on matrix metalloproteinase-9 [76]. Furthermore, CSD causes ipsilateral extravasation of plasma proteins in dura mater, serving as an experimental marker of trigeminal nerve activation [6]; it also induces c-Fos expression within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis [8]. These findings and a recent transcription MRI study [77] suggest that intense cortical perturbations like repeated CSD can open the blood–brain barrier, thereby activating the trigeminovascular system. CSD releases chemicals such as H+, K+, nitric oxide, and neurotransmitters into the extracellular space. It has been hypothesized that released molecules reach the pial surface by bulk diffusion and accumulate in proximity to trigeminovascular afferents. Extracellular K+ levels greater than 40 mmol/l were measured in the pial space during CSD.

Consistent with an upstream role for CSD, prolonged administration of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses CSD in rats as a proposed mechanism of action [24]. In line with the growing clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic drugs is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and DL propranolol on CSD [24].


6 Moskowitz MA. Genes, proteases, cortical spreading depression and migraine: impact on pathophysiology and treatment. Funct Neurol 2007;22:133–136.

This work reviews important developments supporting the view of cortical spreading depression as an upstream driver of both migraine aura and pain.

7 Bolay H, Reuter U, Dunn AK, et al. Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model. Nat Med 2002; 8:136–142.

8 Moskowitz MA, Nozaki K, Kraig RP. Neocortical spreading depression provokes the expression of c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity within trigeminal nucleus caudalis via trigeminovascular mechanisms. J Neurosci 1993; 13:1167–1177.

24 Ayata C, Jin H, Kudo C, et al. Suppression of cortical spreading depression in migraine prophylaxis. Ann Neurol 2006; 59:652–661.

75 Kunkler PE, Hulse RE, Schmitt MW, et al. Optical current source density analysis in hippocampal organotypic culture shows that spreading depression occurs with uniquely reversing currents. J Neurosci 2005; 25:3952–3961.

76 Gursoy-Ozdemir Y, Qiu J, Matsuoka N, et al. Cortical spreading depression activates and upregulates MMP-9. J Clin Invest 2004; 113:1447–1455.

77 Liu CH, You Z, Ren J, et al. Noninvasive delivery of gene targeting probes to live brains for transcription MRI. FASEB J 2007 [Epub ahead of print].
This study uses an innovative transcription MRI technique to visualize specific cerebral mRNA in vivo. It validates noninvasive delivery of novel magnetic resonance probes to the brains of live animals after acute neurological disorders.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation, no reference is given.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Amh/Fragment 010 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-07 13:28:27 Schumann
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Dopamine 2009

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KomplettPlagiat
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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 22-31
Quelle: Wikipedia Dopamine 2009
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors; D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, and their variants. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus.

Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation), sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus

In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors — D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, and their variants. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.[1] Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. [...]

[...]

Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation), sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, substantia nigra pars compacta, and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.


1. http://www.encyclopedia.com/ doc/1O87-ventraltegmentalarea.html Reference for VTA.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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