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Reconsolidation: The effects of dopamine receptors on spreading depression in rat neocortical tissues

von Dr. Anna Maria Haarmann

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Amh/Fragment 023 10 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-06 21:43:23 Schumann
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Stanwood 2008, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 10-26
Quelle: Stanwood 2008
Seite(n): 4, 5, Zeilen: 4:1-16; 5:5-10
Dopamine is widely distributed in the central nervous system and serves a variety of functions in the mature brain, including control of movement, cognition, endocrine responses, and reward. Dysfunction of dopaminergic system plays an important role in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit

hyperactivity disorder, and drug addiction (Arnsten and Li, 2005; Biederman and Faraone, 2005; Kalivas and Volkow, 2005). Dopamine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors, characterized by an extracellular N-terminal region, intracellular C-terminal region, and seven membrane-spanning regions. There are two subfamilies of DA receptors, D1 receptors and D2 receptors, based on their pharmacological profiles and sequence homology (Lachowicz and Sibley, 1997; Missale et al., 1998). D1 receptors, including the D1 and D5 receptor subtypes, catalyze synthesis of cAMP. D2 receptors, including the D2, D3, and D4 receptor subtypes, inhibit cAMP synthesis. The receptors also affect activation of potassium channels and mitogen-activated protein kinases (Neve et al., 2004; Beaulieu et al., 2005). Several studies have identified binding partners for the D2 receptor including coreceptors, signaling molecules, and scaf-folding proteins (Smith et al., 1999; Macey et al., 2004; Negyessy and Goldman-Rakic, 2005; So et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2006 , 2007; Rashid et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2008).


Arnsten AF, Li BM. (2005) Neurobiology of executive functions: catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical functions. Biol Psychiatry. 1;57:1377-84.

Beaulieu JM, Sotnikova TD, Marion S, Lefkowitz RJ, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG.( 2005) An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 29;122:261-73.

Biederman J, Faraone SV. (2005) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet. 16-22;366:237-48.

Kalivas PW, Volkow N, Seamans J. (2005) Unmanageable motivation in addiction: a pathology in prefrontal-accumbens glutamate transmission.Neuron. 3;45:647-50.

Kim JH, Cho EY, Min C, Park JH, Kim KM. (2008) Characterization of functional roles of DRY motif in the 2nd intracellular loop of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Arch Pharm Res. 31:474-81.

Lachowicz JE, Sibley DR. (1997) Molecular characteristics of mammalian dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 81:105-13.

Liu Y, Teeter MM, DuRand CJ, Neve KA. (2006) Identification of a Zn2+-binding site on the dopamine D2 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 20;339:873-9.

Macey TA, Gurevich VV, Neve KA. (2004) Preferential Interaction between the dopamine D2 receptor and Arrestin2 in neostriatal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 66:1635-42.

Missale C, Nash SR, Robinson SW, Jaber M, Caron MG. (1998) Dopamine receptors: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 78:189-225.

Negyessy L, Goldman-Rakic PS. (2005) Subcellular localization of the dopamine D2 receptor and coexistence with the calcium-binding protein neuronal calcium sensor-1 in the primate prefrontal cortex. J Comp Neurol. 8;488:464-75.

Rashid AJ, So CH, Kong MM, Furtak T, El-Ghundi M, Cheng R, O'Dowd BF, George SR. ( 2007) D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 9;104:654-9.

Smith FD, Oxford GS, Milgram SL. (1999) Association of the D2 dopamine receptor third cytoplasmic loop with spinophilin, a protein phosphatase-1-interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 9;274:19894-900.

So CH, Varghese G, Curley KJ, Kong MM, Alijaniaram M, Ji X, Nguyen T, O'dowd BF, George SR. (2005) D1 and D2 dopamine receptors form heterooligomers and cointernalize after selective activation of either receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 68:568-78.

[page 4]

Dopamine (DA) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and serves a variety of functions in the mature brain, including control of movement, cognition, endocrine responses, and reward. Dopaminergic abnormalities contribute to many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and drug addiction (Arnsten and Li, 2005; Biederman and Faraone, 2005; Girault and Greengard, 2004; Goldman-Rakic, 1998; Kalivas and Volkow, 2005; Kiyatkin, 1995; Nestler, 2001).

DA receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), characterized by an extracellular N-terminus region, intracellular C-terminus region, and seven membrane spanning regions. There are two subfamilies of DA receptors, D1-like receptors and D2-like receptors, based on their pharmacological profiles and sequence homology (Lachowicz and Sibley, 1997; Missale et al., 1998). D1-like receptors, including the D1 and D5 receptor sub-types, catalyze synthesis of cAMP. D2-like receptors, including the D2, D3, and D4 receptor subtypes, inhibit cAMP synthesis. The receptors also affect activation of potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt (Beaulieu et al., 2005; Neve et al., 2004).

[page 5]

Several previous studies have identified binding partners for the D2 receptor including co-receptors, signaling molecules, and scaffolding proteins (see Fig. 1) (Beaulieu et al., 2005; Beaulieu et al., 2007; Binda et al., 2002; Free et al., 2007; Fuxe et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2007; Macey et al., 2004; Negyessy and Goldman-Rakic, 2005; Rashid et al., 2007; Smith et al., 1999; So et al., 2005).


Arnsten AF and Li BM (2005) Neurobiology of executive functions: catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical functions. Biol Psychiatry 57(11):1377-1384.

Beaulieu JM, Sotnikova TD, Marion S, Lefkowitz RJ, Gainetdinov RR and Caron MG (2005) An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell 122(2):261-273.

Biederman J and Faraone SV (2005) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 366(9481):237-248.

Kalivas PW and Volkow ND (2005) The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 162(8):1403-1413.

Kim OJ, Ariano MA, Namkung Y, Marinec P, Kim E, Han J and Sibley DR (2008) D(2) dopamine receptor expression and trafficking is regulated through direct interactions with ZIP. J Neurochem.

Lachowicz JE and Sibley DR (1997) Molecular characteristics of mammalian dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol 81(3):105-113.

Liu XY, Chu XP, Mao LM, Wang M, Lan HX, Li MH, Zhang GC, Parelkar NK, Fibuch EE, Haines M, Neve KA, Liu F, Xiong ZG and Wang JQ (2006) Modulation of D2R-NR2B interactions in response to cocaine. Neuron 52(5):897-909.

Liu Y, Buck DC, Macey TA, Lan H and Neve KA (2007) Evidence that calmodulin binding to the dopamine D2 receptor enhances receptor signaling. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 27(1):47-65.

Macey TA, Gurevich VV and Neve KA (2004) Preferential Interaction between the dopamine D2 receptor and Arrestin2 in neostriatal neurons. Mol Pharmacol 66(6):1635-1642.

Missale C, Nash SR, Robinson SW, Jaber M and Caron MG (1998) Dopamine receptors: from structure to function. Physiological Reviews 78(1):189-225.

Negyessy L and Goldman-Rakic PS (2005) Subcellular localization of the dopamine D2 receptor and coexistence with the calcium-binding protein neuronal calcium sensor-1 in the primate prefrontal cortex. J Comp Neurol 488(4):464-475.

Neve KA, Seamans JK and Trantham-Davidson H (2004) Dopamine receptor signaling. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 24(3):165-205.

Rashid AJ, So CH, Kong MM, Furtak T, El-Ghundi M, Cheng R, O'Dowd BF and George SR (2007) D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(2):654-659.

Smith FD, Oxford GS and Milgram SL (1999) Association of the D2 dopamine receptor third cytoplasmic loop with spinophilin, a protein phosphatase-1-interacting protein. J Biol Chem 274(28):19894-19900.

So CH, Varghese G, Curley KJ, Kong MM, Alijaniaram M, Ji X, Nguyen T, O'Dowd B F and George SR (2005) D1 and D2 dopamine receptors form heterooligomers and cointernalize after selective activation of either receptor. Mol Pharmacol 68(3):568-578.

Anmerkungen

Found in the "Discussion"-part of Amh's thesis. Not marked as a citation.

The references for "Liu et al., 2007" and "Neve et al., 2004" is missing from Amh.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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