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2 gesichtete Fragmente: "Verdächtig" oder "Keine Wertung"

[1.] Amh/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 7. May 2014, 14:12 (Schumann)
Erstellt: 7. May 2014, 07:14 DerFurz
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, Granz 2009, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KeineWertung
Bearbeiter
DerFurz
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 1-6
Quelle: Granz 2009
Seite(n): 19, 20, Zeilen: 19: 1-7 - 20: 1-3
Figure 4 Effects of quinpirole on cortical spreading depression (SD) in somatosensory neocortical tissues. A: Recording of DC potential shifts in the third layer of a neocortical slice before (A1), during (A2), and after (A3) application of quinpirole (50 μM). Field potentials were recorded by an ink-writer. SD was elicited by KCl microinjection. B: The curve indicates the plot of percentage enlargement of SD amplitude vs. quinpirole concentrations (n= 6 for each concentration). Quinpirole dose-dependently increased the amplitude of SD. The [percentage of SD amplitude enlargement was measured by division of the amplitude of SD induced after application of sulpiride to the amplitude of SD elicited before superfusion of the substance. Values represent mean ± SEM. Significance was determined by ANOVA test followed by Dunn’s post-test (B; P ≤ 0.001).] Fig. 4 Effects of somatostatin on cortical spreading depression (SD) in somatosensory neocortical tissues. A: Recording of DC potential shifts in the third layer of a neocortical slice before (A1), during (A2), and after (A3) application of somatostatin (500 nM). Field potentials were recorded by an ink-writer. SD was elicited by KCl microinjection. B: The curve indicates the plot of percentage decreases of SD amplitude vs. somatostatin concentrations (n = 8 for each concentration). Somatostatin dose-dependently decreased the amplitude of SD. The percentage of SD amplitude reduction was measured by division of 20 the amplitude of SD induced after application of somatostatin to the amplitude of SD elicited before superfusion of the substance. Values represent mean ± SEM. Significance was determined by ANOVA test followed by Dunn’s post-test (B; P ≤ 0.001).
Anmerkungen
Sichter
Schumann

[2.] Amh/Fragment 014 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 7. May 2014, 17:55 (Schumann)
Erstellt: 7. May 2014, 14:42 Hindemith
Amh, Fragment, Gesichtet, Granz 2009, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KeineWertung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 14, Zeilen: 1-30
Quelle: Granz 2009
Seite(n): 16, 17, Zeilen: 16: 25ff; 17: 1ff
Single pulses of electrical stimulation were applied through a bipolar platinum electrode attached to the white matter perpendicular to the recording electrodes. Evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in the third layer of neocortical slices. The fEPSP was elicited by adjusting the intensity of stimulation to 50% of that at which population spikes after fEPSP began to appear. The amplitude of fEPSP 1 ms after the onset was measured for data analysis. In long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments, the cortex was sequentially stimulated once every minute. Ten trains of four pulses (pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V) were repeated at intervals of 10 msec. LTP was operationally defined as the mean change in fEPSP amplitude in response to five stimuli given 30 min after tetanic stimulation compared with the mean response to five test pulses applied immediately before the stimulation. Thus % potentiation = [(posttetanus amplitude of fEPSP/baseline amplitude of fEPSP) 1] 100. Tetanic stimulation was applied 60 min after application of drug.

Experimental protocols

The experimental protocol consisted of four periods as follows: (a) control period, neocortical slices were superfused with ACSF (30 min), tested for spontaneous SD; (b) KCl injection, induction of SD (SD1); (c) application of D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole (10-200 μM), or the dopamine D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.1-10 μM, 60 min) before the second injection of KCl (SD2); (d) washout of quinpirole or sulpiride with ASCF (45 min, second control period), third injection of KCl (SD3). Only a single concentration of quinpirole or sulpiride was used in a given slice. In control experiments, DMSO (0.5%) was added to the bath solution after the first KCl injection (60 min) and washed with ASCF (45 min) after the second and before the third KCl application.

Drugs

Quinpirole or sulpiride both purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

Statistical analysis

All data are given as mean ± SEM. The data were statistically analysed using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance test (ANOVA) for repeated measures followed by a Holm-Sidak’s test. Significance was established when the probability values were less than 0.05.

Single pulses of electrical stimulation were applied through a bipolar platinum electrode attached to the white matter perpendicular to the recording electrodes. Evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in the third layer of neocortical slices. The fEPSP was elicited by adjusting the intensity of stimulation to 50% of that at which population spikes after fEPSP began

[page 17]

to appear. The amplitude of fEPSP 1 ms after the onset was measured for data analysis. In long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments, the cortex was sequentially stimulated once every minute. Ten trains of four pulses (pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V) were repeated at intervals of 10 msec. LTP was operationally defined as the mean change in fEPSP amplitude in response to five stimuli given 30 min after tetanic stimulation compared with the mean response to five test pulses applied immediately before the stimulation. Thus % potentiation = [(posttetanus amplitude of fEPSP/baseline amplitude of fEPSP) 1] 100. Tetanic stimulation was applied 60 min after application of drug.

4. Experimental protocols

The experimental protocol consisted of four periods as follows: (a) control period, neocortical slices were superfused with ACSF (30 min), tested for spontaneous SD; (b) KCl injection, induction of SD (SD1); (c) application of somatostatin (100-1000 nM) before the second injection of KCl (SD2); (d) washout of somatostatin with ASCF (45 min, second control period), third injection of KCl (SD3). Only a single concentration of somatostatin was used in a given slice. In control experiments, DMSO (0.5%) was added to the bath solution after the first KCl injection (60 min) and washed with ASCF (45 min) after the second and before the third KCl application.

5. Drugs

Somatostatin purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

6. Statistical analysis

All data are given as mean ± SEM. The data were statistically analysed using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance test (ANOVA) for repeated measures followed by a Holm-Sidak’s test. Significance was established when the probability values were less than 0.05.

Anmerkungen

The fragment is not evaluated as plagiarism because the source (also a dissertation) and Amh (2010) have been written roughly at the same time and it is not clear who has copied from who.

Neither of the two dissertations give a source for this passage.

Note that the passage is part of the methods section where similar or even identical protocols between different studies are not surprising. However, it should be made clear to the reader that an identical protocol to another study has been used, not least because the reader might want to compare those studies and/or might want to know that the protocol has been used successfully before.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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