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[1.] Analyse:Aae/Fragment 001 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 24. October 2015, 21:10 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 24. October 2015, 21:10 (Graf Isolan)
Aae, Fragment, Nagaraj 2006, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Quelle: Nagaraj 2006
Seite(n): 1, 2, Zeilen: 1:1-4, 2:9-11
1 Introduction

The transition of poultry industry from the backyard flocks of 1950’s to the current commercial form of intensive production system has led to produce poultry meat to supply for the human consumption as well as expanding export markets. The National Chicken Council recommends <30 % incidence of foot pad lesions (FPD) in commercial broiler flocks to meet the current animal welfare guidelines.

[Page 1]

I. INTRODUCTION

The transition of broiler industry from the backyard flocks of 1950’s to the current commercial form of intensive production system has led to production of poultry meat to supply for the domestic consumption as well as expanding export markets.

[Page 2]

The National Chicken Council recommends < 30% incidence of footpad lesions (pododermatitis) in commercial broiler flocks to meet the current animal welfare guidelines.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

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(Graf Isolan)

[2.] Analyse:Aae/Fragment 001 09 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 24. October 2015, 21:50 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 24. October 2015, 21:16 (Graf Isolan)
Aae, Fragment, Nagaraj 2006, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 1, Zeilen: 9-11, 13-19, 20-23
Quelle: Nagaraj 2006
Seite(n): 1, 2, 3, Zeilen: 1:9-11; 2:1-9; 3:12-13
More recently, the condition of poultry feet is used as a production criterion to evaluate the animal welfare programs implemented by commercial poultry companies. [Foot pad dermatitis is an important aspect of bird welfare, as in severe cases, the foot pad lesions may cause pain which together with a deteriorated state of health constitutes a welfare issue.] The growing demand for least-cost, wholesome and convenient food products has been the driver for the expansion and diversification of the poultry industry. Poultry feet or paws (the portion of the feet cut just below the spur), are one of the new processing by-products that has an intense demand in recent years from the Southeast Asia especially, China and Hong Kong (BERG 1998). The financial incentive and the increasing demand have led to efforts to maximize the yield and quality of the birds feet harvested. [This trade is based on a high quality product, i.e. poultry feet without severe lesions or discoloration.] Downgrading results in a precipitous drop in the quantity available for sale and the value received for the exported poultry feet. Downgrading of poultry feet due to FPD results in rejects and associated loss in the sale value of the product.

BERG, C. (1998):
Foot pad dermatitis in broilers and turkeys; prevalence, risk factors and prevention.
Doctorate thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden.

[Page 1]

The growing demand for least-cost, wholesome and convenient food products has been the driver for the expansion and diversification of the poultry industry.

[Page 2]

Chicken feet or paws (the portion of the feet cut just below the spur), are one of the new processing by-products that has an intense demand in recent years from the Southeast Asia. The exports of paws to countries like China and Hong Kong alone amounts to over $200 million each year. The financial incentive and the increasing demand have led to efforts to maximize the yield and quality of the chicken feet harvested. More recently, the condition of chicken feet is used as a production criterion to evaluate the animal welfare programs implemented by commercial poultry companies [4]. Downgrading of chicken feet due to pododermatitis, results in rejects and associated loss in the sale value of the product.

[Page 3]

Downgrading results in a precipitous drop in the quantity available for sale and the value received for the exported chicken feet.


4. RSPCA, 2000. Welfare standards for chickens (Horsham, West Sussex, RPSCA).

Anmerkungen

Only slightly adapted (e.g.: "poultry" instead of "chicken") and cut up; still, nothing has been marked as a citation.

The two sentences on lines 11-13 and 19-20, respectively indeed do not stem from Nagaraj (2006) but are inspersed unmarked 1:1 citations from the mentioned thesis by Berg (1998).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[3.] Analyse:Aae/Fragment 002 07 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 26. October 2015, 19:47 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 24. October 2015, 22:27 (Graf Isolan)
Aae, Berg 1998, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 2, Zeilen: 7-31
Quelle: Berg 1998
Seite(n): 10, 11, 15, Zeilen: 10:7-8.20-25; 11:5-14; 15:12-14.16-30
DAWKINS (1983) and later on DUNCAN (1996) have claimed that animal welfare is mainly related to the subjective feelings of the animals. In contrast, there are a number of different indicators for animal welfare can be used too, such as health and mortality, ethological measures, productivity, physiological and immunological measures (BROOM 1991). However, none of these indicators can give the full picture alone. Often ethical and political considerations must also be taken into account (SANDØE and SIMONSEN 1992). Thus, for example the Broiler Foot Health Programme was created in Sweden, as part of the Animal Welfare Programme (BERG 1998). In a review paper, SAVORY (1995) mentioned that poor litter quality is considered as one of the three main categories contributing to welfare problems in broilers. Similarly, HOCKING (1993) stated that poor litter is recognised as a welfare problem also in turkey production. HARMS and SIMPSON (1975) reported that birds with FPD had an unsteady walk. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to identify lameness caused by FPD in a commercial flock. As birds with FPD usually get the same kind of lesions on both feet severely affected birds are rarely seen limping, but are instead less likely to move. A part [sic] from animal welfare aspects, FPD is relevant to the poultry meat industry for several reasons. It has been indicated that broilers with severe FPD show slower weight gain (MARTLAND 1985; EKSTRAND and ALGERS 1997), which has been suggested to be a result of pain induced inappetance (MARTLAND 1985). In a paper describing a study on turkey poults, SCHMIDT and LÜDERS (1976) suggested that the lesions cause pain, resulting in reluctance to move and thus decreased feed consumption. MARTLAND (1984) reported an association between wet litter and a reduction in body weight in groups which also had a high incidence of FPD.

If the problem is widespread in a flock, this can lead to substantially reduced profit for the producer. As flocks with a high incidence of FPD often also show a high prevalence of other types of contact dermatitis, such as breast blisters and hock burns (GREENE et al. 1985; [MARTLAND 1985), in addition to lower body weights, downgrading may adversely affect the profitability of these flocks (WISE 1978).]


BERG, C. (1998):
Foot pad dermatitis in broilers and turkeys; prevalence, risk factors and prevention.
Doctorate thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, Sweden.

BROOM, D. (1991):
Assessing welfare and suffering.
Behav. Process. 25:117-123

DAWKINS, M. (1983):
Battery hens name their price: consumer demand theory and the measurement of ethological "needs".
Anim. Behav. 31:1195-1205

DUNCAN, I.J.H. (1996):
Animal welfare defined in terms of feelings.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 27(Section A, Animal Science Suplementum), pp.29-35

EKSTRAND, C. and B. ALGERS (1997):
The effect of litter moisture on the development of foot-pad dermatitis in broilers.
Proceddings [sic] of the 11th International Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, Budapest, p.370

GREENE, J.A., R.M. MCCRACKEN and R.T. EVANS (1985):
Acontact [sic] dermatitis of broilers - clinical and pathological findings.
Avian Pathol. 14: 23-38

HARMS, R.H. and C.F. SIMPSON (1975):
Biotin deficiency as a possible cause of swelling and ulceration of foot pads.
Poult. Sci. 54: 1711-1713

HOCKING, P.M. (1993):
Welfare of turkeys.
Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, Edinburgh, UFAW, pp.125-138

MARTLAND, M.F. (1984):
Wet litter as a cause of plantar pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lameness in fattening turkeys.
Avian Pathol 13(2):241-252

MARTLAND, M.F. (1985):
Ulcerative dermatitis in broiler chickens: the effects of wet litter.
Avian Pathol. 14(3):353-364

SANDØE, P. and H.B. SIMONSEN (1992):
Assessing animal welfare: where does science end and philosophy begin?
Animal Welfare 1:257-267

SAVORY, J. (1995):
Broiler Welfare: problems and prospects.
Arch. Geflügelkd. (Sonderheft 1):48-52

SCHMIDT, V. and H. LÜDERS (1976): <br/Ulcerations of the sole and toe pads of fattened turkey cocks.
Berlin München Tierarztlicher [sic] Wochenschrift 89(3):47-50

WISE, D.R. (1978):
Nutrition-disease interactions of leg weakness in poultry. Recent advance in animal nutrition.
Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann Ltd, pp.41-57

[Page 10]

For example, Dawkins (1983) and Duncan (1996) have claimed that animal welfare is mainly related to the subjective feelings of the animals, whereas Broom (1996) has stressed the animal’s ability to adapt to and cope with its environment as crucial for animal welfare. [...]

When we want to assess animal welfare, there are a number of different indicators which can be used, such as productivity, mortality and health, ethological measures and physiological and immunological measures (Broom, 1991). None of these indicators can give the full picture alone. Often ethical and political considerations must also be taken into account (Rushen and de Passillé, 1992; Sandøe and Simonsen, 1992).

[Page 11]

In a review paper, Savory (1995) mentions poor litter quality as one of the three main categories contributing to welfare problems in broilers. Harms and Simpson (1975) reported that birds with foot-pad dermatitis had an unsteady walk, and Hester (1994) described how foot-pad dermatitis causes birds to walk with a hobbling gait. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to identify lameness caused by foot-pad dermatitis in a commercial flock. As broilers with foot-pad dermatitis usually get the same kind of lesions on both feet, severely affected birds are rarely seen limping, but are instead less likely to move. Poor litter is recognised as a welfare problem also in turkey production (Hocking, 1993). [...]

Apart from animal welfare aspects, foot-pad dermatitis is relevant to the poultry meat industry for several reasons. It has been indicated that broilers with severe foot-pad dermatitis show slower weight gain (Martland, 1985; Ekstrand and Algers, 1997), which has been suggested to be a result of pain-induced inappetance (Martland, 1985). In a paper describing a study on turkey poults, Schmidt and Lüders (1976) suggested that the lesions cause pain, resulting in a reluctance to move and thus decreased feed consumption. Martland (1984) reported an association between wet litter and a reduction in body weight in groups which also had a high incidence of foot-pad dermatitis. If the problem is widespread in a flock, this can lead to substantially reduced profit for the producer. As flocks with a high incidence of foot-pad dermatitis often also show a high prevalence of other types of contact dermatitis, such as breast blisters and hock burns (Greene et al., 1985; Martland, 1985), in addition to lower body weights, downgrading may adversely affect the profitability of these flocks (Wise, 1978; Cravener et al., 1992).

[Page 15]

Thus the Broiler Foot-Health Programme was created, as a part of the Animal Welfare Programme (Figure 3).


Broom, D. (1991). Assessing welfare and suffering. Behavioural Processes, 25: 117-123.

Broom, D. M. (1996). Animal welfare defined in terms of attempts to cope with the environment. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 27(Section A, Animal Science Suplementum): 22-28.

Cravener, T. L., Roush, W. B. and Mashaly, M. M. (1992). Broiler production under varying population densities. Poultry Science, 71(3): 427-433.

Dawkins, M. (1983). Battery hens name their price: consumer demand theory and the measurement of ethological "needs". Animal Behaviour, 31: 1195-1205.

Duncan, I. J. H. (1996). Animal welfare defined in terms of feelings. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 27(Section A, Animal Science Suplementum): 29-35.

Ekstrand, C. and Algers, B. (1997). The effect of litter moisture on the development of foot-pad dermatitis in broilers. 11th International Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, Budapest. 370.

Greene, J. A., McCracken, R. M. and Evans, R. T. (1985). A contact dermatitis of broilers - clinical and pathological findings. Avian Pathology, 14(1): 23-38.

Harms, R. H. and Simpson, C. F. (1975). Biotin deficiency as a possible cause of swelling and ulceration of foot pads. Poultry Science, 54(5): 1711-1713.

Hester, P. Y. (1994). The role of environment and management on leg abnormalities in meat-type fowl. Poultry Science, 73(6): 904-915.

Hocking, P. M. (1993). Welfare of turkeys. 4th European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, Edinburgh, UFAW. 125-138.

Martland, M. F. (1984). Wet litter as a cause of plantar pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lameness in fattening turkeys. Avian Pathology, 13(2): 241-252.

Martland, M. F. (1985). Ulcerative dermatitis in broiler chickens: the effects of wet litter. Avian Pathology, 14(3): 353-364.

Rushen, J. and de Passillé, A. M. B. (1992). The scientific assessment of the impact of housing on animal welfare: a critical review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 72: 721-743.

Sandøe, P. and Simonsen, H. B. (1992). Assessing animal welfare: where does science end and philosophy begin? Animal Welfare, 1: 257-267.

Savory, J. (1995). Broiler Welfare: problems and prospects. Archiv für Geflügelkunde(Sonderheft 1): 48-52.

Schmidt, V. and Lüders, H. (1976). Ulcerations of the sole and toe pads of fattened turkey cocks. Berlin München Tierarztlicher [sic] Wochenschrift, 89(3): 47-50.

Wise, D. R. (1978). Nutrition-disease interactions of leg weakness in poultry. Recent advance in animal nutrition. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann Ltd, 1978: 41-57.


Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

The author of the original text - C.C. Berg - is mentioned once among many other references in passing. There is no hint whatsoever that nearly all of this text including the large list of references stems from her. In one case Aae has also copied the wrong German title "Tierarztlicher Wochenschrift" for the "Tierärztliche Wochenschrift" from Berg (missing "Umlaut", wrong grammar).

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(Graf Isolan)

[4.] Analyse:Aae/Fragment 003 16 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 26. October 2015, 20:20 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 26. October 2015, 20:14 (Graf Isolan)
Aae, Berg 1998, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Seite(n): 16, Zeilen: 30-37
Foot pad dermatitis in meat-type poultry partly has a similar background to so-called ‘breast blisters’ and ‘hock burns’ in broilers (HARMS and SIMPSON 1975; GREENE et al. 1985; MARTLAND 1985), but these lesions usually develop more slowly and are less frequent (STEPHENSON et al. 1960). Similar types of lesions in turkeys; such as so called ‘breast buttons” (focal ulcerative dermatitis; FUD), ‘breast blisters’ and ‘scabby hocks’, are also believed to have the same background as the foot pad lesions (MARTLAND 1984).

GREENE, J.A., R.M. MCCRACKEN and R.T. EVANS (1985):
Acontact [sic] dermatitis of broilers - clinical and pathological findings.
Avian Pathol. 14: 23-38

HARMS, R.H. and C.F. SIMPSON (1975):
Biotin deficiency as a possible cause of swelling and ulceration of foot pads.
Poult. Sci. 54: 1711-1713

MARTLAND, M.F. (1984):
Wet litter as a cause of plantar pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lameness in fattening turkeys.
Avian Pathol 13(2):241-252

MARTLAND, M.F. (1985):
Ulcerative dermatitis in broiler chickens: the effects of wet litter.
Avian Pathol. 14(3):353-364

STEPHENSON, E.L., J.M. BEZANSON and C.F. HALL (1960):
Factors affecting the incidence and severity of a breast blister condition in broilers.
Poult. Sci. 39:1520-1524

Foot-pad dermatitis in meat-type poultry partly has a similar background to so-called ‘breast blisters’ and ‘hock burns’ in broilers (Harms and Simpson, 1975; Greene et al., 1985; Martland, 1985; Bruce et al., 1990), but these lesions usually develop more slowly and are less frequent (Stephenson et al., 1960). Similar types of lesions in turkeys, such as so called ‘breast buttons” (focal ulcerative dermatitis; FUD), ‘breast blisters’ and ‘scabby hocks’, are also believed to have the same background as the foot-pad lesions (Martland, 1984; Gonder and Barnes, 1987).

Bruce, D. W., McIlroy, S. G. and Goodall, E. A. (1990). Epidemiology of a contact dermatitis of broilers. Avian Pathology, 19(3): 523-538.

Gonder, E. and Barnes, H. J. (1987). Focal ulcerative dermatitis ("breast buttons") in marketed turkeys. Avian Diseases, 31(1): 52-58.

Greene, J. A., McCracken, R. M. and Evans, R. T. (1985). A contact dermatitis of broilers - clinical and pathological findings. Avian Pathology, 14(1): 23-38.

Harms, R. H. and Simpson, C. F. (1975). Biotin deficiency as a possible cause of swelling and ulceration of foot pads. Poultry Science, 54(5): 1711-1713.

Martland, M. F. (1984). Wet litter as a cause of plantar pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lameness in fattening turkeys. Avian Pathology, 13(2): 241-252.

Martland, M. F. (1985). Ulcerative dermatitis in broiler chickens: the effects of wet litter. Avian Pathology, 14(3): 353-364.

Stephenson, E. L., Bezanson, J. M. and Hall, C. F. (1960). Factors affecting the incidence and severity of a breast blister condition in broilers. Poultry Science, 39: 1520-1524.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[5.] Analyse:Aae/Fragment 016 12 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 6. November 2015, 23:53 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 6. November 2015, 23:35 (Graf Isolan)
Aae, BauernOpfer, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Waldenstedt et al 2001, ZuSichten

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Quelle: Waldenstedt et al 2001
Seite(n): 1412, Zeilen: left col. 10-17.19-20, right col. 1-6
It is generally believed that moist litter will favour the development of coccidiosis, because of the higher sporulation ability thus induced (CARD and NESHEIM 1972; MATTER and OESTER 1989). The infective form of Eimeria is highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the excreta of infected birds. The oocyst is excreted from the host as an undifferentiated stage out side [sic] of the GIT, and in order to become infective it must sporulate. During sporulation four sporocysts, each containing two sporozoites, are formed within the oocyst (KHEYSIN 1972). The degree and rate of sporulated oocysts are important factors affecting the infection pressure in a flock of birds, thus influencing the epidemiology of the infections (WALDENSTEDT et al. 2001). Sporulation of the oocysts depends mainly on three basic factors: temperature, humidity, and access to oxygen (KHEYSIN 1972).

CARD, L.E. and M.C. NESHEIM (1972):
Chapter 10. Diseases and Parasites.
Poultry Production. 11th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 244-273

KHEYSIN, Y.M. (1972):
Chapter V. Sporulation of oocysts and their survival in the external environment.
Life cycles of coccidian of domestic animals. K S. Todd Jr., ed. University Park Press,
London, UK , pp.149-177

MATTER, F. and H. OESTER (1989):
Hygiene and welfare implications of alternative husbandry systems for laying hens.
Proceedings from the 3rd European Symposium on Poultry Welfare. J.M.Faure and D. Mills, eds. Tours, France. pp.201-212

WALDENSTEDT, L.; K. ELWINGÉR, A. LUNDEN, P. THEBO and A. UGGLA (2001):
Sporulation of Eimeria maxima oocsyts in litter with different moisture contents.
Poult. Sci. 80:1412-1415

The infective form of Eimeria is the highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the feces of infected animals. The oocyst is excreted from the host as an undifferentiated stage, and in order to become infective it must sporulate. During sporulation four sporocysts, each containing two sporozoites, are formed within the oocyst. Sporulation of the oocyst depends mainly on three basic factors; temperature, humidity, and access to oxygen (Kheysin, 1972). [...] The degree and rate of sporulation of excreted oocysts are important factors affecting the infection pressure in a flock of birds, thus influencing the epidemiology of the infections. It is generally believed that moist litter will favor the development of coccidiosis, because of the higher sporulation ability thus induced (Card and Nesheim, 1972; Matter and Oester, 1989).

Card, L. E., and M. C. Nesheim, 1972. Chapter 10. Diseases and parasites. Pages 244–273 in: Poultry Production. 11th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.

Kheysin, Y. M., 1972. Chapter V. Sporulation of oocysts and their survival in the external environment. Pages 149–177 in: Life cycles of coccidia of domestic animals. K. S. Todd Jr., ed. University Park Press, London, UK.

Matter, F., and H. Oester, 1989. Hygiene and welfare implications of alternative husbandry systems for laying hens. Pages 201–212 in: Proceedings from the 3rd European Symposium on Poultry Welfare. J. M. Faure and D. Mills, eds. Tours, France.

Anmerkungen

Even though the source is named (once) nothing has been marked as a citation. The takeover is word of word and extends to the references.

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