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Typus
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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 71, Zeilen: 3-17
Quelle: Thatcher et al 2000
Seite(n): 235, Zeilen: left col. 6-11 - right col. 1-10
Although typical protein antigens possess numerous immunogenic peptide sequences, only a few of these, the dominant epitopes, contribute to the development of the T-cell response against the whole protein. Epitopes that are immunogenic in peptide form, but do not participate in the immune response against the whole protein, are termed cryptic epitopes (Sercarz et al., 1993).

Cryptic epitopes have proven important in understanding self–non-self discrimination and autoimmunity (Lanzavecchia, 1995; Warnock and Goodacre, 1997). Several studies using transgene-derived neo-self antigens have shown, that immune tolerance extends only to dominant epitopes, and that T cells specific for cryptic epitopes may be immune competent (Cabaniols et al., 1994; Cibotti et al., 1992; Moudgil and Sercarz, 1993; Shih et al., 1997). Some autoimmune diseases are characterized by determinant spreading, in which the early stages of the disease are characterized by T cells reactive against one or a few dominant epitopes, while T-cell populations reactive against cryptic epitopes appear in the later stages of disease (Tuohy et al., 1998).


Cabaniols, J.P., Cibotti, R., Kourilsky, P., Kosmatopoulos, K., and Kanellopoulos, J.M. (1994). Dose-dependent T cell tolerance to an immunodominant self peptide. Eur J Immunol 24, 1743-1749.

Cibotti, R., Kanellopoulos, J.M., Cabaniols, J.P., Halle-Panenko, O., Kosmatopoulos, K., Sercarz, E., and Kourilsky, P. (1992). Tolerance to a self-protein involves its immunodominant but does not involve its subdominant determinants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 416-420.

Lanzavecchia, A. (1995). How can cryptic epitopes trigger autoimmunity? J Exp Med 181, 1945-1948.

Moudgil, K.D., and Sercarz, E.E. (1993). Dominant determinants in hen eggwhite lysozyme correspond to the cryptic determinants within its self-homologue, mouse lysozyme: implications in shaping of the T cell repertoire and autoimmunity. J Exp Med 178, 2131-2138.

Sercarz, E.E., Lehmann, P.V., Ametani, A., Benichou, G., Miller, A., and Moudgil, K. (1993). Dominance and crypticity of T cell antigenic determinants. Annu Rev Immunol 11, 729-766.

Shih, F.F., Cerasoli, D.M., and Caton, A.J. (1997). A major T cell determinant from the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) can be a cryptic self peptide in HA transgenic mice. Int Immunol 9, 249-261.

Tuohy, V.K., Yu, M., Yin, L., Kawczak, J.A., Johnson, J.M., Mathisen, P.M., Weinstock-Guttman, B., and Kinkel, R.P. (1998). The epitope spreading cascade during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Immunol Rev 164, 93-100.

Warnock, M.G., and Goodacre, J.A. (1997). Cryptic T-cell epitopes and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Br J Rheumatol 36, 1144-1150.

INTRODUCTION

[...] Although typical protein antigens possess numerous immunogenic peptide sequences, only a few of these, called dominant epitopes, contribute to the development of the T-cell response against the whole protein. Epitopes that are immunogenic in peptide form, but which do not participate in the immune response against the whole protein, are termed cryptic epitopes (reviewed in 1).

Cryptic epitopes have proven important in understanding self±non-self discrimination and autoimmunity.2,3 Several studies using transgene-derived neo-self antigens have shown that immune tolerance extends only to dominant epitopes, and that autologous T cells specific for cryptic epitopes of self proteins may be immune competent.4-7 Some autoimmune diseases are characterized by determinant spreading, in which the early stages are characterized by T cells reactive against one or a few dominant epitopes, while T-cell populations reactive against cryptic epitopes appear in the later stages of disease.8,9


1. SERCARZ E.E., LEHMANN P.V., AMETANI A., BENICHOU G.,MILLER A. & MOUDGIL K. (1993) Dominance and crypticity of T cell antigenic determinants. Annu Rev Immunol 11, 729.

2. WARNOCK M.G. & GOODACRE J.A. (1997) Cryptic T-cell epitopes and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Br J Rheumatol 36, 1144.

3. LANZAVECCHIA A. (1995) How can cryptic epitopes trigger autoimmunity? J Exp Med 181, 1945.

4. SHIH F.F., CERASOLI D.M. & CATON A.J. (1997) A major T cell determinant from the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) can be a cryptic self peptide in HA transgenic mice. Int Immunol 9, 249.

5. CABANIOLS J.P., CIBOTTI R., KOURILSKY P., KOSMATOPOULOS K. & KANELLOPOULOS J.M. (1994) Dose-dependent T cell tolerance to an immunodominant self peptide. Eur J Immunol 24, 1743.

6. MOUDGIL K.D. & SERCARZ E.E. (1993) Dominant determinants in hen eggwhite lysozyme correspond to the cryptic determinants within its self-homologue, mouse lysozyme: implications in shaping of the T cell repertoire and autoimmunity. J Exp Med 178, 2131.

7. CIBOTTI R., KANELLOPOULOS J.M., CABANIOLS J.P. et al. (1992) Tolerance to a self-protein involves its immunodominant but does not involve its subdominant determinants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 416.

8. TUOHY V.K., YU M., YIN L. et al. (1998) The epitope spreading cascade during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Immunol Rev 164, 93.

9. SERCARZ E.E. (1998) Immune focusing vs diversification and their connection to immune regulation. Immunol Rev 164, 5.

Anmerkungen

Though nearly identical (up to the references), nothing has been marked as a citation. The source is nowhere mentioned in this thesis.

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