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Fragmente (Plagiat, gesichtet)

6 Fragmente

[1.] Analyse:By/Fragment 005 07 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 27. August 2014, 14:57 Hindemith
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 21:02 (Graf Isolan)
Adhesion Guide - Adhesion Theory 2004, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 7-20
Quelle: Adhesion Guide - Adhesion Theory 2004
Seite(n): 1 (WWW resource), Zeilen: -
The mechanical interlocking theory of adhesion states that good mechanical adhesion occurs only when an adhesive penetrates into the pores, holes and crevices and other irregularities of the adhered surface of a substrate, and locks mechanically to the substrate. The adhesive must not only wet the substrate, but also have the right rheological properties to penetrate pores and openings in a reasonable time. Since good adhesion can occur between smooth adherend surfaces as well, it is clear that while interlocking helps to promote adhesion, it is not really a generally applicable adhesion mechanism.

These pretreatments (especially plastic surface treatments) result in micro-roughness on the adherend surface, which can improve bond strength and durability by providing mechanical interlocking. Beyond mechanical interlocking, the enhancement of the adhesive joint strength due to the roughing of the adherend surface may also result from other factors such as formation of a larger surface, improved kinetics of wetting and increased plastic deformation of the adhesive 2,3)


2) M. P. Walker, Y. Wang, J. Swafford, A. Evans and P. Spencer, J Prosthodont, 9, 77-81 (2000).

3) C.W.Jennings, Journal of adhesion, 4, 25-34 ( 1972).

The mechanical interlocking theory of adhesion states that good adhesion occurs only when an adhesive penetrates into the pores, holes and crevices and other irregularities of the adhered surface of a substrate, and locks mechanically to the substrate. The adhesive must not only wet the substrate, but also have the right rheological properties to penetrate pores and openings in a reasonable time.

[This theory explains a few examples adhesion such as rubber bonding to textiles and paper.] Since good adhesion can occur between smooth adherend surfaces as well, it is clear that while interlocking helps promote adhesion, it is not really a generally applicable adhesion mechanism.


[Pretreatment methods applied on surfaces enhance adhesion [13].]] These pretreatments (especially plastic surface treatments) result in microroughness on the adherend surface, which can improve bond strength and durability by providing mechanical interlocking. Beyond mechanical interlocking, the enhancement of the adhesive joint strength due to the roughing of the adherend surface may also result from other factors such as formation of a larger surface, improved kinetics of wetting and increased plastic deformation of the adhesive [14-15].


[14] J. R. Evans and D. E. Packham, Adhesion of Polyethylene to Metals: the Role of Surface Topography. Journal of adhesion, 10, 177-191, 1979.

[15] C. W. Jennings, Surface Roughness and Bond Strength of Adhesives, Journal of Adhesion, 4, 25-4, 1972.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Analyse:By/Fragment 006 30 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 22. February 2014, 21:01 Schumann
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 18:59 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Blatz et al 2003, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 30-34
Quelle: Blatz et al 2003
Seite(n): 268, Zeilen: left col. 7-10.13-22
A strong, durable resin bond provides high retention 6) improves marginal adaptation and prevents microleakage 7) and increases fracture resistance of the restored tooth and the restoration 8). Bonding to traditional silica-based ceramics is a predictable procedure yielding durable results when certain guidelines are followed. 9-12) However, the composition and physical properties of high-strength ceramic materials, such as [aluminum oxide- based (Al2O3) and zirconium oxide-based (ZrO2) ceramics 12), differ substantially from silica-based ceramics, and require alternative bonding techniques to achieve a strong, long-term, durable resin bond 12).]

6) O. M. el-Mowafy, A. H. Fenton, N. Forrester and M. Milenkovic, J Prosthet Dent, 76, 524-9 (1996).

7) J. A. Sorensen and E. C. Munksgaard, Eur J Oral Sci, 103, 116-20 (1995).

8) A. Attia and M. Kern, J Prosthet Dent, 91, 247-52 (2004).

9) M. A. Latta and W. W. Barkmeier, Compend Contin Educ Dent, 21, 635-9, 642-4; quiz 646 (2000).

10) K. Kamada, K. Yoshida and M. Atsuta, J Prosthet Dent, 79, 508-13 (1998).

11) M. Rosentritt, M. Behr, R. Lang and G. Handel, Dent Mater, 16, 159-65 (2000).

12) M. B. Blatz, A. Sadan and M. Kern, J Prosthet Dent, 89, 268-74 (2003).

A strong, durable resin bond provides high retention,23 improves marginal adaptation and prevents microleakage,24 and increases fracture resistance of the restored tooth and the restoration.25,26

[...] Bonding to traditional silica-based ceramics is a predictable procedure yielding durable results when certain guidelines are followed.24-26,29-94 However, the composition and physical properties of high-strength ceramic materials, such as aluminum oxide-based (Al2O3)95-99 and zirconium oxide-based (ZrO2) ceramics,100 differ substantially from silica-based ceramics96,101,102 and require alternative bonding techniques to achieve a strong, long-term, durable resin bond.


23. el-Mowafy O. The use of resin cements in restorative dentistry to overcome retention problems. J Can Dent Assoc 2001;67:97-102.

24. Sorensen JA, Kang SK, Avera SP. Porcelain-composite interface microleakage with various porcelain surface treatments. Dent Mat 1991;7: 118-23.

25. Reference deleted.

26. Jensen ME, Sheth JJ, Tolliver D. Etched-porcelain resin-bonded full-veneer crowns: in vitro fracture resistance. Compendium 1989;10:336-8, 340-1, 344-7.

29. Latta MA, Barkmeier WW. Approaches for intraoral repair of ceramic restorations. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2000;21:635-9, 642-4.

94. Della Bona A, van Noort R. Shear vs. tensile bond strength of resin composite bonded to ceramic. J Dent Res 1995;74:1591-6.

95. McLean JW, Hughes TH. The reinforcement of dental porcelain with ceramic oxides. Br Dent J 1965;119:251-67.

96. Seghi RR, Sorensen JA. Relative flexural strength of six new ceramic materials. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8:239-46.

97. Andersson M, Oden A. A new all-ceramic crown: a dense-sintered, high-purity alumina coping with porcelain. Acta Odontol Scand 1993; 51:59-64.

98. Zeng K, Oden A, Rowcliffe D. Flexure tests on dental ceramics. Int J Prosthodont 1996;9:434-9.

99. Zeng K, Oden A, Rowcliffe D. Evaluation of mechanical properties of dental ceramic core materials in combination with porcelains. Int J Prosthodont 1998;11:183-9.

100. Ashizuka M, Kiyohara H, Okuno T, Kubota Y. Fatigue behavior of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) containing 2 and 4 mol% Y2O3 (Part 2). J Ceram Soc Jpn Inter Ed 1988;96:731-6.

101. Taira M, Nomura Y, Wakasa K, Yamaki M, Matsui A. Studies on fracture toughness of dental ceramics. J Oral Rehabil 1990;17:551-63.

102. Giordano RA 2nd, Pelletier L, Campbell S, Pober R. Flexural strength of an infused ceramic, glass ceramic, and feldspathic porcelain. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73:411-8.

Anmerkungen

Although the source is given (in passing) nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[3.] Analyse:By/Fragment 007 08 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 22. February 2014, 21:51 Schumann
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 16:12 (Graf Isolan)
Blatz et al 2003, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 8-37
Quelle: Blatz et al 2003
Seite(n): 270, Zeilen: left col. 2-18.21-26.29-39.42-45; right col. 3-9.13-16
Therefore, resin-based luting composites are the material of choice for the adhesive luting of ceramic restorations14). Composite cements have compositions and characteristics similar to conventional restorative composites and consist of inorganic fillers embedded in an organic matrix (for example: Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA). Composite cements can be classified according to their initiation mode as autopolymerizing (chemically activated), photoactivated, or dual-activated materials14). Photoactivated composites offer wide varieties of shades, consistencies, and compositions. Clinical application is simplified through long handling times before and rapid hardening after exposure to light. Shade, thickness, and transmission coefficient of the bonded ceramic restoration and the composite itself influence the conversion rate of the photo-activated material and limit its application to thin silica-based ceramics. Dual-activated composites offer extended working times and controlled polymerization14), although chemical activators ensure a high degree of polymerization. Most dual-activated resin cements still require photopolymerization and demonstrated inferior hardness when light polymerization was omitted. Autopolymerizing resin cements have fixed setting times and are generally indicated for resin bonding metal-based or opaque, high-strength ceramic restorations.

Resin cements with reduced filler contents offer improved flow, increased surface wettability, and optimal positioning of the restoration15). However, filler-containing composite cements revealed higher bond strengths than resins without fillers16) and hybrid composites showed better results than microfilled composites. Highly filled resin cements may improve abrasion resistance at the marginal area, reduce polymerization shrinkage, and facilitate removal of excess cement14). Wear and substance loss of composite cements after final insertion have been extensively studied in laboratory and clinical investigations that demonstrated a correlation of marginal gap width and depth of wear17). However, the effect of wear resistance of resin cements on the clinical longterm success of bonded restorations remains to be determined. Other properties of these materials need to be investigated before they can be recommended for bonding of ceramic high viscosity materials may be pulled out of the luting gap during cleaning restorations without reservation.


14) N. Kramer, U. Lohbauer and R. Frankenberger, Am J Dent, 13, 60D-76D (2000).

15) J. C. Chang, T. Nguyen, J. H. Duong and G. D. Ladd, J Prosthet Dent, 79, 503-7 (1998).

16) H. Kato, H. Matsumura and M. Atsuta, J Oral Rehabil, 27, 103-10 (2000).

17) K. B. Frazier and D. C. Sarrett, Am J Dent, 8, 161-4 (1995).

Resin-based composites are the material of choice for the adhesive luting of ceramic restorations.75 Composite cements have compositions and characteristics similar to conventional restorative composites and consist of inorganic fillers embedded in an organic matrix (for example: Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA). Composite cements can be classified according to their initiation mode as autopolymerizing (chemically activated), photoactivated, or dual-activated materials.75 Photoactivated composites offer wide varieties of shades, consistencies, and compositions.75 Clinical application is simplified through long handling times before and rapid hardening after exposure to light. Shade, thickness, and transmission coefficient of the bonded ceramic restoration and the composite itself influence the conversion rate of the photo-activated material and limit its application to thin silica-based ceramics. [...] Dual-activated composites offer extended working times and controlled polymerization,75 although chemical activators ensure a high degree of polymerization. Most dual-activated resin cements still require photopolymerization and demonstrated inferior hardness when light polymerization was omitted.77,78 [...] Autopolymerizing resin cements have fixed setting times and are generally indicated for resin bonding metal-based or opaque, high-strength ceramic restorations.75

Resin cements with reduced filler contents offer improved flow, increased surface wettability, and optimal positioning of the restoration.75 However, filler-containing composite cements revealed higher bond strengths than resins without fillers,51 and hybrid composites showed better results than microfilled composites. 58 [...] Highly filled resin cements may improve abrasion resistance at the marginal area, reduce polymerization shrinkage, and facilitate removal of excess cement.75 [...]

Wear and substance loss of composite cements after final insertion have been extensively studied in laboratory and clinical investigations that demonstrated a correlation of marginal gap width and depth of wear.82,83 However, the effect of cement wear on the clinical longterm success of bonded restorations remains to be determined.

[...] Other properties of these materials need to be investigated before they can be recommended for bonding of ceramic restorations without reservation.


51. Kato H, Matsumura H, Atsuta M. Effect of etching and sandblasting on bond strength to sintered porcelain of unfilled resin. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:103-10.

58. Paffenbarger GC, Sweeney WT, Bowen RL. Bonding porcelain teeth to acrylic resin denture bases. J Am Dent Assoc 1967;74:1018-23.

75. Kramer N, Lohbauer U, Frankenberger R. Adhesive luting of indirect restorations. Am J Dent 2000;13:60D-76D.

77. Hasegawa EA, Boyer DB, Chan DC. Hardening of dual-cured cements under composite resin inlays. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66:187-92.

78. el-Badrawy WA, el-Mowafy OM. Chemical versus dual curing of resin inlay cements. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73:515-24.

79. Chang JC, Nguyen T, Duong JH, Ladd GD. Tensile bond strengths of dual-cured cements between a glass-ceramic and enamel. J Prosthet Dent 1998;79:503-7.

82. Frazier KB, Sarrett DC. Wear resistance of dual-cured rein luting agents. Am J Dent 1995;8:161-4.

83. Kawai K, Isenberg BP, Leinfelder KF. Effect of gap dimension on composite resin cement wear. Quintessence Int 1994;25:53-8.

Anmerkungen

A literal copy with the literary references also taken from the original source (albeit with permutations). At the end there is a deviation from the original text.

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[4.] Analyse:By/Fragment 009 26 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 22. February 2014, 21:56 Schumann
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 20:01 (Graf Isolan)
Bona et al 2007, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 9, Zeilen: 26-37
Quelle: Bona et al 2007
Seite(n): 11, Zeilen: right col. 25-45
However, some studies reported that sandblasting the high-strength ceramics may be effective for the initial bond to some luting agents, yet it is not stable, since it presents failure when specimens are stored for extended periods in artificial saliva and submitted to thermocycling in water 36). This may be due to the fact that this treatment creates surface irregularities without micromechanical retention.

Application of a silica coating on ceramics with high crystalline (low silica) content, as In-Ceram, has been used as an experimental surface treatment method. This technology was initially developed for metals to increase bonding to resins. The silica coating systems include the Rocatec and Cojet from ESPE (Germany) and the Silicoater MD from Heraeus Kulzer (Germany). Cojet is an in-office silica coating system that uses 30-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (Cojet-Sand) blasted to the surface, followed by the application of a silane agent (ESPE-Sil) 37)


36) M. Kern and V. P. Thompson, J Prosthet Dent, 73, 240-9 (1995).

37) M. Guazzato, M. Albakry, M. V. Swain and J. Ironside, Int J Prosthodont, 15, 339-46 (2002).

However, some studies reported that sandblasting the In-Ceram ceramics may be effective for the initial bond to some luting agents, yet it is not stable, since it presents failure when specimens are stored for extended periods in artificial saliva and submitted to thermocycling in water.15,23 This may be due to the fact that this treatment creates surface irregularities without micromechanical retention.15

Application of a silica coat on ceramics with high crystalline (low silica) content, as In-Ceram, has been used as an experimental surface treatment method. This technology was initially developed for metals to increase bonding to resins. The silica coating systems include the Rocatec and Cojet from ESPE (Germany) and the Silicoater MD from Heraeus Kulzer (Germany).

Cojet is an in-office silica coating system that uses 30-μm silica-modified Al2O3 particles (Cojet-Sand) blasted to the surface, followed by the application of a silane agent (ESPE-Sil).9,12


9. Frankenberger R, Krämer N, Sindel J. Repair strength of etched vs. silica-coated metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations. Oper Dent. 2000;25(3):209-15.

11. Guazzato M, Albakry M, Swain MV, Ironside J. Mechanical Properties of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia. Int J Prosthodont. 2002;15(4):339-46.

12. Haselton DR, Diaz-Arnold AM, Dunne JT Jr. Shear bond strengths of 2 intraoral porcelain repair systems to porcelain or metal substrates. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;86(5):526-31.

15. Kern M, Thompson VP. Bonding to glass infiltrated alumina ceramic: Adhesive methods and their durability. J Prosthet Dent. 1995;73(3):240-9.

23. Wood DJ, Bubb NL, Millar BJ. Preliminary investigation of a novel system for hydrofluoric acid etch-resistant dental ceramics. J Prosthet Dent. 1997;78(3):275-80.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[5.] Analyse:By/Fragment 010 24 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 22. February 2014, 22:01 Schumann
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 18:40 (Graf Isolan)
Blatz et al 2003, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 24-37
Quelle: Blatz et al 2003
Seite(n): 272, Zeilen: left col. 21-42
Adhesive cementation may not be required for final insertion of high-strength all-ceramic restorations with proper mechanical retention. However, some clinical situations and restorative treatment options mandate resin bonding and adequate ceramic-surface conditioning. Preferred treatments for glass-infiltrated aluminum-oxide ceramic are either airborne particle abrasion with Al2O3 (50 to 110 μm at 2.5 bar) and use of a phosphate-modified resin cement (Panavia 21) or tribochemical surface treatment (Rocatec System) in combination with conventional Bis-GMA resin cement. The small number of long-term in vitro studies on the bond strength to densely-sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic does not allow for clinical recommendations. The few available studies on resin bonding to zirconium oxide ceramics suggest the use of resin cements that contain special adhesive monomers. Compared with silica-based ceramics, the number of in vitro studies on the resin bond to high-strength zirconia ceramics is small. The rapidly increasing popularity of all-ceramic systems requires further investigation of resin-zirconia ceramic bonding. Adhesive cementation may not be required for final insertion of high-strength all-ceramic restorations with proper mechanical retention. However, some clinical situations and restorative treatment options mandate resin bonding and, therefore, adequate ceramic-surface conditioning. Preferred treatments for glass-infiltrated aluminum-oxide ceramic are either airborne particle abrasion with Al2O3 (50 to 110 μm at 2.5 bar) and use of a phosphate-modified resin cement (Panavia 21) or tribochemical surface treatment (Rocatec System) in combination with conventional Bis-GMA resin cement. The small number of long-term in vitro studies on the bond strength to densely-sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic does not allow for clinical recommendations. The few available studies on resin bonding to zirconium-oxide ceramics suggest the use of resin cements that contain special adhesive monomers. Compared with silica-based ceramics, the number of in vitro studies on the resin bond to high-strength ceramics is small. The rapidly increasing popularity of all-ceramic systems requires further research.
Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[6.] Analyse:By/Fragment 023 23 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 22. February 2014, 20:53 Schumann
Erstellt: 19. February 2014, 20:35 (Graf Isolan)
Adhesion Guide - Adhesion Theory 2004, By, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 23-28, 31-35
Quelle: Adhesion Guide - Adhesion Theory 2004
Seite(n): 1 (WWW resource), Zeilen: -
The mechanical interlocking theory of adhesion states that good adhesion occurs only when an adhesive penetrates into the pores, holes and other irregularities of the adhered surface of a substrate, and locks mechanically to the substrate 1). The adhesive must not only wet the substrate, but also have the right rheological properties to penetrate pores and openings in a reasonable time. [...] This method can significantly improve bond strength and durability by providing mechanical interlocking 50). Beyond mechanical interlocking, the enhancement of the adhesive adhesive resin cement joint strength due to the roughing of the adherend surface may also result from other factors such as formation of a larger surface, improved kinetics of wetting and increased plastic deformation of the adhesive.

1) H. M. Clearfield, D. K. NcNamara and G. D. Davis, Eds., "Adherend surface preparation for structural adhesive bonding, in : Adhesive Bonding (L. H. Lee, ed.)," Plenum Press, New York, 1991.

50) A. B. M. KERN, and B. YANG,, Long-term Bond Strength to Zirconia Ceramic after Different Surface Conditioning, AADR 37th Annual Meeting and Exhibition Dallas, Texas, USA, 2008.

The mechanical interlocking theory of adhesion states that good adhesion occurs only when an adhesive penetrates into the pores, holes and crevices and other irregularities of the adhered surface of a substrate, and locks mechanically to the substrate. The adhesive must not only wet the substrate, but also have the right rheological properties to penetrate pores and openings in a reasonable time.

[...]

[...] These pretreatments (especially plastic surface treatments) result in microroughness on the adherend surface, which can improve bond strength and durability by providing mechanical interlocking. Beyond mechanical interlocking, the enhancement of the adhesive joint strength due to the roughing of the adherend surface may also result from other factors such as formation of a larger surface, improved kinetics of wetting and increased plastic deformation of the adhesive. [14-15].


[14] J. R. Evans and D. E. Packham, Adhesion of Polyethylene to Metals: the Role of Surface Topography. Journal of adhesion, 10, 177-191, 1979.

[15] C. W. Jennings, Surface Roughness and Bond Strength of Adhesives, Journal of Adhesion, 4, 25-4, 1972.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

The second time that By uses this text in his thesis (first time: Fragment 005 07).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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Quellen

Quelle Autor Titel Verlag Jahr Lit.-V. FN
By/Adhesion Guide - Adhesion Theory 2004 Adhesion theory - Mechanical Interlocking 2004 ja ja
By/Blatz et al 2003 Markus B. Blatz, Avishani Sadan, Matthias Kern Resin-ceramic bonding: a review of the literature 2003 ja ja
By/Bona et al 2007 Alvaro Della Bona, Márcia Borba, Paula Benetti, Dileta Cecchetti Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of a zirconia-reinforced ceramic to composite resin 2007 nein nein


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