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Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 8-37
Quelle: Blatz et al 2003
Seite(n): 270, Zeilen: left col. 2-18.21-26.29-39.42-45; right col. 3-9.13-16
Therefore, resin-based luting composites are the material of choice for the adhesive luting of ceramic restorations14). Composite cements have compositions and characteristics similar to conventional restorative composites and consist of inorganic fillers embedded in an organic matrix (for example: Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA). Composite cements can be classified according to their initiation mode as autopolymerizing (chemically activated), photoactivated, or dual-activated materials14). Photoactivated composites offer wide varieties of shades, consistencies, and compositions. Clinical application is simplified through long handling times before and rapid hardening after exposure to light. Shade, thickness, and transmission coefficient of the bonded ceramic restoration and the composite itself influence the conversion rate of the photo-activated material and limit its application to thin silica-based ceramics. Dual-activated composites offer extended working times and controlled polymerization14), although chemical activators ensure a high degree of polymerization. Most dual-activated resin cements still require photopolymerization and demonstrated inferior hardness when light polymerization was omitted. Autopolymerizing resin cements have fixed setting times and are generally indicated for resin bonding metal-based or opaque, high-strength ceramic restorations.

Resin cements with reduced filler contents offer improved flow, increased surface wettability, and optimal positioning of the restoration15). However, filler-containing composite cements revealed higher bond strengths than resins without fillers16) and hybrid composites showed better results than microfilled composites. Highly filled resin cements may improve abrasion resistance at the marginal area, reduce polymerization shrinkage, and facilitate removal of excess cement14). Wear and substance loss of composite cements after final insertion have been extensively studied in laboratory and clinical investigations that demonstrated a correlation of marginal gap width and depth of wear17). However, the effect of wear resistance of resin cements on the clinical longterm success of bonded restorations remains to be determined. Other properties of these materials need to be investigated before they can be recommended for bonding of ceramic high viscosity materials may be pulled out of the luting gap during cleaning restorations without reservation.


14) N. Kramer, U. Lohbauer and R. Frankenberger, Am J Dent, 13, 60D-76D (2000).

15) J. C. Chang, T. Nguyen, J. H. Duong and G. D. Ladd, J Prosthet Dent, 79, 503-7 (1998).

16) H. Kato, H. Matsumura and M. Atsuta, J Oral Rehabil, 27, 103-10 (2000).

17) K. B. Frazier and D. C. Sarrett, Am J Dent, 8, 161-4 (1995).

Resin-based composites are the material of choice for the adhesive luting of ceramic restorations.75 Composite cements have compositions and characteristics similar to conventional restorative composites and consist of inorganic fillers embedded in an organic matrix (for example: Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA). Composite cements can be classified according to their initiation mode as autopolymerizing (chemically activated), photoactivated, or dual-activated materials.75 Photoactivated composites offer wide varieties of shades, consistencies, and compositions.75 Clinical application is simplified through long handling times before and rapid hardening after exposure to light. Shade, thickness, and transmission coefficient of the bonded ceramic restoration and the composite itself influence the conversion rate of the photo-activated material and limit its application to thin silica-based ceramics. [...] Dual-activated composites offer extended working times and controlled polymerization,75 although chemical activators ensure a high degree of polymerization. Most dual-activated resin cements still require photopolymerization and demonstrated inferior hardness when light polymerization was omitted.77,78 [...] Autopolymerizing resin cements have fixed setting times and are generally indicated for resin bonding metal-based or opaque, high-strength ceramic restorations.75

Resin cements with reduced filler contents offer improved flow, increased surface wettability, and optimal positioning of the restoration.75 However, filler-containing composite cements revealed higher bond strengths than resins without fillers,51 and hybrid composites showed better results than microfilled composites. 58 [...] Highly filled resin cements may improve abrasion resistance at the marginal area, reduce polymerization shrinkage, and facilitate removal of excess cement.75 [...]

Wear and substance loss of composite cements after final insertion have been extensively studied in laboratory and clinical investigations that demonstrated a correlation of marginal gap width and depth of wear.82,83 However, the effect of cement wear on the clinical longterm success of bonded restorations remains to be determined.

[...] Other properties of these materials need to be investigated before they can be recommended for bonding of ceramic restorations without reservation.


51. Kato H, Matsumura H, Atsuta M. Effect of etching and sandblasting on bond strength to sintered porcelain of unfilled resin. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:103-10.

58. Paffenbarger GC, Sweeney WT, Bowen RL. Bonding porcelain teeth to acrylic resin denture bases. J Am Dent Assoc 1967;74:1018-23.

75. Kramer N, Lohbauer U, Frankenberger R. Adhesive luting of indirect restorations. Am J Dent 2000;13:60D-76D.

77. Hasegawa EA, Boyer DB, Chan DC. Hardening of dual-cured cements under composite resin inlays. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66:187-92.

78. el-Badrawy WA, el-Mowafy OM. Chemical versus dual curing of resin inlay cements. J Prosthet Dent 1995;73:515-24.

79. Chang JC, Nguyen T, Duong JH, Ladd GD. Tensile bond strengths of dual-cured cements between a glass-ceramic and enamel. J Prosthet Dent 1998;79:503-7.

82. Frazier KB, Sarrett DC. Wear resistance of dual-cured rein luting agents. Am J Dent 1995;8:161-4.

83. Kawai K, Isenberg BP, Leinfelder KF. Effect of gap dimension on composite resin cement wear. Quintessence Int 1994;25:53-8.

Anmerkungen

A literal copy with the literary references also taken from the original source (albeit with permutations). At the end there is a deviation from the original text.

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Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

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