Fandom

VroniPlag Wiki

Analyse:Hja/Fragment 005 04

31.268Seiten in
diesem Wiki
Seite hinzufügen
Diskussion2

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.


Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 4ff
Quelle: Chacon et al 2006
Seite(n): 346, 347, Zeilen: 346:right col. 35-42; 347:left col. 5-30.46-52 - right col. 1-3.11-16.20-36.40-47
1.2 Literature review

Late 1960s, a number of maps were prepared in the United States showing slope stability conditions (Blanc and Cleveland, 1968), incidence of landslides expressed by relative amount of landslide deposits (Radbruch-Hall, 1970; Radbruch-Hall and Crowther, 1973), landslide deposits (Brabb and Pampeyan, 1972) and qualitative landslide susceptibility (Dobrovoiny, 1971; Scott, 1972; Davis, 1974a, j; Pomeroy, 1974, etc.). The qualitative susceptibility assessment was firstly based on field reconnaissance of geology based recognition of instability factors around the observed landslides in order to make susceptibility zonations (see section 3.1 for the definitions of susceptibility and hazard zonation) in the area with the landslide inventory being a basic step. The method drew on the subjective expertise of each author.

Similar qualitative landslide incidence maps have been made in different countries using the terms zones exposed to landslide risks or slope instability (ZERMOS program by French Laboratoire de Ponts et Chausse´s, Paris: Antoine, 1977; Humbert, 1977; Landry, 1979; Meneroud and Calvino, 1976; Meneroud 1978, etc.; Mahr and Malgot, 1978 in Slovakia; Kienholtz, 1978 in Switzerland, Rodrıguez Ortiz et al., 1978; Hinojosa and Leon, 1978 in Spain, etc.). An example of the main qualitative susceptibility maps published by the USGS (Radbruch, 1970; Scott, 1972; Davies, 1974; Pomeroy, 1974, etc.) is a map showing landslide areas susceptible to landsliding in the Morrison Quadrangle, Jefferson County, Colorado, Scott (1972) which distinguished four zones.

Semi-quantitative susceptibility hazard or slope instability maps based on analysis of slope angles, lithology and relative amounts of landslip material have been published (Blanc and Cleveland, 1968; Bowman, 1972; Radbruch and Crowther, 1973; Dobrovolny and Schmoll, 1974; Nilsen and Brabb, 1977; Nilsen and Wrigth, 1979). The landslide map of California was made by Radbruch and Crowther (1973) into 1: 1,000,000 scales. Here, the rating were related to slope angle below 50 and rainfall of less than 10 inch (25.4 cm) with very little evidence of landsliding as unit 1 and at the opposite extreme, to areas heavily covered by large amount of landslides as unit 6. Nilsen and Wrigth (1979) in a 1:125,000 scale landslide map of the San Francisco Bay region distinguished slope angle units of < 50, 5–150 and > 150, and lithological groups of no landslide deposits, susceptible bedrock, susceptible superficial deposits and landslide deposits. Combining these two criteria of slope angle and lithological groups they classified the region into six zones: (1) stable, (2) generally stable, (3) moderately stable, (4) moderately unstable and (5) unstable. The areas subject to liquefaction was defined as Zone 1A. These maps, at different scales, were oriented toward the classification of land units based on the evidence of landsliding. However, as there was no attempt at temporal forecasting, from the point of view of Varnes (1978) they would be considered closer to landslide inventories than to landslide hazard maps.

Stevenson (1977), proposed hazard and risk maps which was based on numerically rated or weighted slope and geological factors with geotechnical data. Other significant contributions were linear risk maps of roads (Meneroud, 1978) and geotechnical stability maps which rate soil and rock mechanics parameters such as cohesion, friction angle or rock massif discontinuities (Vecchia, 1978).


Blank, R. P., Clevelend, G. B. (1968): Natural slope stability as related to geology, San Clemente Area, Orange and San Diego Countries [sic], California. California Division of Mines and Geology, Special report 98, pp 19.

Brabb, E. E., Pampeyan, E. H. (1972): Preliminary map of landslide deposits in San Mateo Country [sic], California. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies, Map MF-360, scale 1:62,500.

Davies, W. E. (1974a): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Bridgeville 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-274, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974b): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Canonsburg 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-276, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974c): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Donora 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-277, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974d): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Freeport 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-278, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974e): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the McKees-port 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-280, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974f): landslide susceptibility map of part of the Monongahela 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-281, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974g): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the New Kensington East 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-283, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974h): landslide susceptibility map of part of the New Kensington West 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-284, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974i): Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Braddock 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-273, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Davies, W. E. (1974j): landslide susceptibility map of part of the Curtisville 7-1/2 minutes [sic] quadrangle. Allegheny Country [sic] and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-276, scale 1:24,000, pp 8.

Dobrovolny, E. (1971): Landslide susceptibility in and near anchorage as interpreted from topographic and geologic maps in the great Alaska earthquake of 1964-Geology volume. Publication 1603. U.S. Geological Survey Open_Field Report 86-329, National Research Council, committee on the Alaska earthquake, National Academy of Sciences, USA, pp 735-745.

Meneroud, J.P. (1978): Cartographie des risques dans les Alps-Maritimes (France). In: Proceedings of the IIIrd I.A.E.G. Congress, II, Chap. 46, pp 98–107.

Nilsen, T. H., Wright, R. H. (1979): Relative slope stability and landuse planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 944, US Department of Interior, Washington, pp 103.

Radbruch, D. H. (1970): Map of relative amount of landslides in California. US Geological Survey open file report 70-1485, pp 36, map scale 1:500,000. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-585.

Radbruch, D. H., Crowther, K. C. (1973): Map showing areas of estimated relative susceptibility to landsliding in California. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-747, scale 1:1,000,000.

Scott, G. R. (1972): Map showing landslides and areas susceptible to landslides in the Morrison Quadrangle, Jefferson Country, Colorado. US Geological Survey. Map I-790-B. USA.

Stevenson, P. C. (1977): An empirical method for the evaluation of relative landslide risk. Int. Ass. Eng. Geol. Bull., 16:69–72.

Varnes, D. J. (1978): Slope movement types and processes. In Landslide Analysis and Control, edited by M. Clark, pp. 11-33, Special Report 176, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Washington, DC.

Vecchia, O. (1978): A simple terrain index for the stability of hillsides or scarps. In: Geddes J. D. (ed) Large ground movements and structures. Wiley, New York Toronto, pp 449-461.

[Page 346]

From the late 1960s, a number of maps were made in the United States showing slope stability conditions (Blanc and Cleveland 1968), the incidence of landslides expressed by relative amount of landslide deposits (Radbruch-Hall 1970; Radbruch-Hall and Crowther 1973), landslide deposits (Brabb and Pampeyan 1972) and qualitative landslide susceptibility (Dobrovolny 1971; Scott 1972; Davies 1974a, j; Pomeroy 1974, etc.).

[Page 347]

The susceptibility assessment was firstly based on field reconnaissance of instability factors producing a given susceptibility level for a particular area or field zone, with the landslides inventory being a basic step towards analysis and mapping. The method drew on the subjective expertise of each author. The basic analysis was a field geology-based recognition of instability factors around the observed landslides in order to make a zonation of the presence of these factors within the susceptibility zones. Indications about levels of landslide activity were also included (Scott 1972). Similar qualitative landslide incidence maps have been made in different countries using the terms zones exposed to landslide risks or slope instability, etc. (ZERMOS program by French Laboratoire de Ponts et Chausse´s, Paris: Antoine 1977; Humbert 1977; Landry 1979; Méneroud and Calvino 1976; Méneroud 1978, etc.; Mahr and Malgot 1978 in Slovakia; Kienholtz 1978 in Switzerland, Rodríguez Ortiz et al. 1978; Hinojosa and Leon 1978 in Spain, etc.).

An example of the main qualitative susceptibility maps published by the USGS (Radbruch 1970; Scott 1972; Davies 1974; Pomeroy 1974, etc.) is a map showing landslide areas susceptible to landsliding in the Morrison Quadrangle, Jefferson County, Colorado, Scott (1972) which distinguished four zones:

[...]

Also semi-quantitative susceptibility, hazard or slope instability maps based on analysis of slope angles, lithology and relative amounts of landslip material have been published (Blanc and Cleveland 1968; Bowman 1972; Radbruch and Crowther 1973; Dobrovolny and Schmoll 1974; Nilsen and Brabb 1977; Nilsen and Wrigth 1979).

As an example, the landslide map of California (at a scale 1:1,000,000) was made by Radbruch and Crowther (1973) with units indicating ‘‘...only the estimated relative amounts of area covered by landslides for each map unit as well as can be determined within the limitations of the present study’’. The authors indicate that ‘‘no quantitative measurements were made and many areas that were neither observed in the field nor covered by published or unpublished data were assigned numbers on the basis of the general aspect of similar geologic units.’’ The general criteria for the rating were related first to slope angle below 5° and rainfall of less than 10 in. (25.4 cm) with very little evidence of landsliding (unit number 1) and, at the opposite extreme, to areas heavily covered by large amount of landslides, as in most of the Franciscan terrain in the northern Coast Ranges (unit 6). [...]

Nilsen and Wrigth (1979) in a 1:125,000 landslide map of the San Francisco Bay region distinguished slope angle units of < 5°, 5–15° and > 15°, and lithological groups of no landslide deposits, susceptible bedrock, susceptible superficial deposits and landslide deposits. Combining these two criteria of slope angle and lithological groups they classified the region into six zones: (1) stable, (2) generally stable, (3) moderately stable, (4) moderately unstable, (5) unstable. Zone 1A was defined as an area ‘‘subject to liquefaction’’.

These maps, at different scales, were oriented toward the classification of land units based on the evidence of landsliding. As there was no attempt at temporal forecasting, from the point of view of Varnes (1978) they would be considered closer to landslide inventories than to landslide hazard maps. [...]

Other hazard and risk maps have been based on numerically rated or weighted slope and geological factors with geotechnical data (Stevenson 1977). Other significant contributions were linear risk maps of roads (Méneroud 1978) and geotechnical stability maps which rate soil and rock mechanics parameters such as cohesion, friction angle or rock massif discontinuities (Vecchia 1978).


Antoine P (1977) Refléxions sur la cartographie ZERMOS et bilan de expe´riences en cours.Bull Bur Rech geol min Sec. III (1-2), 9–20

Blanc RP, Cleveland GB (1968) Natural slope stability as related to geology, San Clemente Area, Orange and San Diego Counties, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 98, 19 pp

Brabb EE, Pampeyan EH (1972) Preliminary map of landslide deposits in San Mateo County, California. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies, Map MF-344, scale 1:62,500

Davies WE (1974a) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Bridgeville 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-274, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974b) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Canonsburg 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-276, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974c) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Donora 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-277, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974d) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Freeport 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-278, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974e) Landslide susceptibility map of the McKeesport 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-280, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974f) Landslide susceptibility map of the Monongahela 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-281, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974g) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the New Kensington East 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-283, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974h) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the New Kensington West 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-284, scale 1:24,0000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974i) Landslide susceptibility map of the Braddock 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-273, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Davies WE (1974j) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Curtisville 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-276, scale 1:24,000, 8 pp

Dobrovolny E (1971) Landslide susceptibility in and near anchorage as interpreted from topographic and geologic maps, in The great Alaska earthquake of 1964–Geology volume. Publication 1603. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-329, National Research Council, Committee, on the Alaska Earthquake, National Academy of Sciences, USA, pp 735–745

Hinojosa JA, Leon CO (1978) Unstable soil mapping in Spain. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Cong. IAEG,Madrid, section I, (I), pp. 217–227

Humbert M (1977) La cartographie ZERMOS. Modalités ´détablissement [sic] des cartes des zones esposes à des risques lié s aux mouvements du sol et du sous-sol. Bull Bur Rech Geol Min III (1–2):5–8

Kienholz H (1978) Maps of geomorphology and natural hazard of Grindewald, Switzerland, scale 1:10,000. Arctic Alpine Res 10(2):169–184

Landry J (1979) Cartes ZERMOS. Zones exposés à des risques liés aix mouvements du solet du sous-sol. Région de Longle-Saunier à Oiligny (Jura). Orlèans, Bureau de RechercheGéologique [ic] et Minière, 14 pp, 1 map

Mahr T, Malgot J (1978) Zoning maps for regional and urban development based on slope stability. In: Proceedings of the IIIrd I.A.E.G. Congress I, Spain 1:14:124–137

Méneroud JP (1978) Cartographie des risques dans les Alps-Maritimes (France). In: Proceedings of the IIIrd I.A.E.G. Congress, II, Chap. 46, pp 98–107

Méneroud JP, Calvino A (1976) Carte ZERMOS. Zones exposés à des risques liés aixmouvements du sol et du sous-sol à 1:25,000 region de la Moyenne Vesubie (Alpes-Maritimes. Orléans, Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière, 11 pp, 1 map

Nilsen TH, Brabb EE (1977) Landslides. In: Borcherdt RD (ed) Studies for seismic zonation of the San Francisco Bay Region. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 941-A, 96 pp

Nilsen TH, Wright RH (1979) Relative slope stability and landuse planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 944, US Department of Interior, Washington, 103 pp

Pomeroy JS (1974a) Landslide susceptibility and processes in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Schultz AP, Southworth CS (eds) Landslides of eastern North America. US Geological Survey Circular 1008, Chap. 2, pp 5–9

Pomeroy JS (1974b) Landslide susceptibility map of the Emsworth 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County, PA. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-75, 15 pp, 1 pl., 7 figs., scale 1:24,000

Pomeroy JS (1974c) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Mars 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-114, 18 pp, 1 pl., 7 figs., scale 1:24,000

Pomeroy JS (1974d) Landslide susceptibility map of part of the Valencia 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-116, 18 pp, 1 pl., scale 1:24,000

Pomeroy JS (1974e) Landslide susceptibility map of the Glenshaw 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-118, 18 pp, 1 pl., 7 figs., scale 1:24,000

Radbruch DH (1970) Map of relative amounts of landslides in California. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 70-1485, 36 pp, map scale 1:500,000. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-585

Radbruch DH, Crowther KC (1973) Map showing areas of estimated relative susceptibility to landsliding in California. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-747, scale 1:1,000,000

Rodríguez Ortiz JM, Prieto C, Hinojosa JA (1978) Regional studies on mass movements in Spain. In: Proceedings of the IIIrd I.A.E.G. Congress I, 1:29:267–278

Scott GR (1972) Map showing landslides and areas susceptible to landslides in the Morrison Quadrangle, Jefferson County, Colorado. US Geological Survey. Map I-790-B. USA

Stevenson PC (1977) An empirical method for the evaluation of relative landslide risk. Int Ass Eng Geol Bull 16:69–72

Varnes DJ (1978) Slope movement types and processes: In: Schuster RL, Krizek RJ (eds) Landslides: analysis and control. Transportation Research Board Special Report 176.

Vecchia O (1978) A simple terrain index for the stability of hillsides or scarps. In: Geddes JD(ed) Large ground movements and structures. Wiley, New York Toronto, pp 449-461

Anmerkungen

No hint is given that this text comes from another source.

There are no references for Antoine (1977), Hinojosa and Leon (1978), Humbert (1977), Kienholtz (1978), Landry (1979), Mahr and Malgot (1978), Meneroud and Calvino (1976), Nilsen and Brabb (1977), Pomeroy (1974), Rodrıguez Ortiz et al. (1978) in Hja.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

Auch bei Fandom

Zufälliges Wiki