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Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 38, Zeilen: 3-28
Quelle: Soeters and van Westen 1996
Seite(n): 163, 164, Zeilen: 163:right col. 12-17.22-29.31-34.42-47; 164:left col. 17-20.23-34.39-48 - right col. 1-14
The occurrence of slope failures depends generally on complex interactions among large number of partially interrelated factors. Hence, analysis of landslide susceptibility (or hazard) requires evaluation of relationships between a variety of spatially dependent terrain conditions and spatial representation of landslides. A geographic information system (GIS) allows for the storage and manipulation of information concerning the different terrain factors as distinct data layers and thus provides an excellent tool for slope instability hazard zonation (Soeters et al., 1996). A geographic information system is defined as a “powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes” (Burrough, 1986). Generally a GIS consists of the components of data input and verification, data storage and data-base manipulation, data transformation and analysis, and data output and presentation. An ideal GIS for landslide hazard zonation combines conventional GIS procedures with image-processing capabilities and a relational data base. The system should be able to perform spatial analysis on multiple-input maps and connected attribute data tables. Necessary GIS functions include map overlay, reclassification, interpolation and a variety of other spatial functions incorporating logical, arithmetic, conditional, and neighborhood operations. In many cases landslide modeling requires the iterative application of similar analyses using different parameters. Therefore, the GIS should allow for the use of batch files and macros to assist in performing these iterations (Soeters et al., 1996).

As compared with conventional techniques, by means of GIS, a much larger variety of analysis techniques became attainable. Because of its speed of calculations, complex techniques requiring a large number of map overlays and table calculations became feasible. It also provides the possibility to improve models by evaluating results and adjusting the input variables. Here, user can achieve the optimum results by a process of trial and error, running the models several times which was difficult to achieve even once in the conventional manner. Therefore, more accurate results can be expected. In the course of a landslide hazard assessment project, the input maps derived from field observations can be progressively updated when new data are collected. Prepared data can be used by many users in an effective manner although the data entry (digitizing) is time consuming work.


Burrough, P. A. (1986): Principles of Geographical Information Systems and Land Resources Assessment. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, pp 194.

Soeters, R., Westen, C. J. van. (1996): Slope instability recognition, analysis, and zonation- Landslides investigation and mitigation. Edited by A. K. Turner and R. L. Schuster, pp 129-177, special report 247, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, National Academic Press, Washington, DC.

[Page 163]

4. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN HAZARD ZONATION

The occurrence of slope failures depends generally on complex interactions among a large number of partially interrelated factors. Analysis of landslide hazard requires evaluation of the relationships between various terrain conditions and landslide occurrences. [...] This procedure requires evaluation of the spatially varying terrain conditions as well as the spatial representation of the landslides. A geographic information system (GIS) allows for the storage and manipulation of information concerning the different terrain factors as distinct data layers and thus provides an excellent tool for slope instability hazard zonation.

4.1 Geographic Information Systems

A GIS is defined as a “powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes” (Burrough 1986). [...] Generally a GIS consists of the following components:

1. Data input and verification,

2. Data storage and data-base manipulation,

3. Data transformation and analysis, and

4. Data output and presentation.

[Page 164]

[...] An ideal GIS for landslide hazard zonation combines conventional GIS procedures with image-processing capabilities and a relational data base. [...] The system should be able to perform spatial analysis on multiple-input maps and connected attribute data tables. Necessary GIS functions include map overlay, reclassification, and a variety of other spatial functions incorporating logical, arithmetic, conditional, and neighborhood operations. In many cases landslide modeling requires the iterative application of similar analyses using different parameters. Therefore, the GIS should allow for the use of batch files and macros to assist in performing these iterations. [...]

The advantages of GIS for assessing landslide hazard include the following:

1. A much larger variety of hazard analysis techniques becomes attainable. Because of the speed of calculation, complex techniques requiring a large number of map overlays and table calculations become feasible.

2. It is possible to improve models by evaluating their results and adjusting the input variables. Users can achieve the optimum results by a process of trial and error, running the models several times, whereas it is difficult to use these models even once in the conventional manner. Therefore, more accurate results can be expected.

3. In the course of a landslide hazard assessment project, the input maps derived from field observations can be updated rapidly when new data are collected. Also, after completion of the project, the data can be used by others in an effective manner.

The disadvantages of GIS for assessing landslide hazard include the following:

1. A large amount of time is needed for data entry. Digitizing is especially time-consuming.



Burrough, P.A. 1986. Principles of Geographical Information Systems and Land Resources Assessment. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 194 pp.

Anmerkungen

Although the source is given nothing has been marked as a citation.

In other places Hja refers to the source more correctly as "(Soeters and van Westen, 1996)".

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(Graf Isolan)

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