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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 3 ff.
Quelle: Weissmuller et al. 2005
Seite(n): 230, Zeilen: -
3. INTRODUCTION

3.1. Vascular barrier

3.1.1. Structural and functional elements of the vascular barrier

The predominant barrier (~90%) to movement of macromolecules across a blood vessel wall is presented by the endothelium (2, 3). Passage of macromolecules across a cellular monolayer can occur via either a paracellular route (i.e., between cells) or a transcellular route (i.e., through cells). In non-pathologic endothelium, macromolecules such as albumin (molecular weight ~66 kD) appear to cross the cell monolayer by passing between adjacent endothelial cells (i.e., paracellular) although some degree of transcellular passage may also occur (4, 5). Endothelial permeability is determined by cytoskeletal mechanisms that regulate lateral membrane intercellular junctions (6, 7). Tight junctions, also known as zona occludens, comprise one type of intercellular junction. Transmembrane proteins found within this region which function to regulate paracellular passage of macromolecules include the proteins occludin, and members of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) and claudin families of proteins (8). Tight junctions form narrow, cell-to-cell contacts with adjacent cells and comprise the predominant barrier to transit of macromolecules between adjacent endothelial cells (9). Endothelial macromolecular permeability is inversely related to macromolecule size. Permeability is also dependent on the tissue of origin. For example, endothelial cells in the cerebral circulation (i.e., blood-brain barrier) demonstrate an exceptionally low permeability (10, 11). Endothelial permeability may increase markedly upon exposure to a variety of inflammatory compounds (e.g., [histamine, thrombin, reactive oxygen species, leukotrienes, bacterial endotoxins) or adverse conditions (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia) (2, 12).]


2. Stevens, T., J.G.N. Garcia, D.M. Shasby, J. Bhattacharya, and A.B. Malik. 2000. Mechanisms regulating endothelial cell barrier function. Am. J. Physiol. (Lung Cell Mol Physiol) 279:L419-L422.

3. Stevens, T., J. Creighton, and W.J. Thompson. 1999. Control of cAMP in lung endothelial cell phenotypes. Implications for control of barrier function. Am J Physiol 277:L119-126.

4. Stan, R.V. 2002. Structure and function of endothelial caveolae. Microsc Res Tech 57:350-364.

5. Michel, C.C. 1998. Capillaries, caveolae, calcium and cyclic nucleotides: a new look at micorvascular permeability. J Mol Cell Cardiol 30:2541- 2546.

6. Worthylake, R.A., and K. Burridge. 2001. Leukocyte transendothelial mirgration: orchestrating the underlying molecular machinery. Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:569-577.

7. Schoenwaelder, S.M., and K. Burridge. 1999. Bidirectional signaling between the cytoskeleton and integrins. Curr Opin Cell Biol 11:274-286.

8. Comerford, K.M., D.W. Lawrence, K. Synnestvedt, B.P. Levi, and S.P. Colgan. 2002. Role of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in protein kinase A-induced changes in endothelial junctional permeability. Faseb J

9. Tsukita, S., M. Furuse, and M. Itoh. 2001. Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:285-293.

10. Rubin, L.L. 1992. Endothelial cells: adhesion and tight junctions. Curr Opin Cell Biol 4:830-833.

11. Janzer, R.C., and M.C. Raff. 1987. Astrocytes induce blood-brain barrier properties in endothelial cells. Nature 325:253-257.

12. Dejana, E., R. Spagnuolo, and C. Bazzoni. 2001. Interendothelial junctions and their role in the control of angiogenesis, vascular permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Thromb Haemost 86:308- 315.

Structural and functional elements of the vascular barrier

The predominant barrier (~90%) to movement of macromolecules across a blood vessel wall is presented by the endothelium [19, 20]. Passage of macromolecules across a cellular monolayer can occur via either a paracellular route (i.e., between cells) or a transcellular route (i.e., through cells). In non-pathologic endothelium, macromolecules such as albumin (molecular weight ~65 kD) appear to cross the cell monolayer by passing between adjacent endothelial cells (i.e., paracellular) although some degree of transcellular passage may also occur [21, 22]. Endothelial permeability is determined by cytoskeletal mechanisms that regulate lateral membrane intercellular junctions [23, 24]. Tight junctions, also known as zona occludens, comprise one type of intercellular junction. Transmembrane proteins found within this region which function to regulate paracellular passage of macromolecules include the proteins occludin, and members of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) and claudin families of proteins [18]. Tight junctions form narrow, cell-to-cell contacts with adjacent cells and comprise the predominant barrier to transit of macromolecules between adjacent endothelial cells [25]. Endothelial macromolecular permeability is inversely related to macromolecule size. Permeability is also dependent on the tissue of origin. For example, endothelial cells in the cerebral circulation (i.e., blood-brain barrier) demonstrate an exceptionally low permeability [26, 27]. Endothelial permeability may increase markedly upon exposure to a variety of inflammatory compounds (e.g., histamine, thrombin, reactive oxygen species, leukotrienes, bacterial endotoxins) or adverse conditions (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia) [6, 19].


6. Dejana E, Spagnuolo R, Bazzoni G. Interendothelial junctions and their role in the control of angiogenesis, vascular permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 308-15.

18. Comerford KM, Lawrence DW, Synnestvedt K et al. Role of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in PKA-induced changes in endothelial junctional permeability. FASEB J 2002; 16: 583-5.

19. Stevens T, Garcia JGN, Shasby DM et al. Mechanisms regulating endothelial cell barrier function. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000; 279: L419-22.

20. Stevens T, Creighton J, Thompson WJ. Control of cAMP in lung endothelial cell phenotypes. Implications for control of barrier function. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: L119-26.

21. Stan RV. Structure and function of endothelial caveolae. Microsc Res Tech 2002; 57: 350-64.

22. Michel CC. Capillaries, caveolae, calcium and cyclic nucleotides: A new look at microvascular permeability. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1998; 30: 2541-6.

23. Worthylake RA, Burridge K. Leukocyte transendothelial migration: Orchestrating the underlying molecular machinery. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2001; 13: 569-77.

24. Schoenwaelder SM, Burridge K. Bidirectional signaling between the cytoskeleton and integrins. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999; 11: 274-86.

25. Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M. Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2001; 2: 285-93.

26. Rubin LL. Endothelial cells: Adhesion and tight junctions. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1992; 4: 830-3.

27. Janzer RC, Raff MC. Astrocytes induce blood-brain barrier properties in endothelial cells. Nature 1987; 325: 253-7.

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