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Typus
ÜbersetzungsPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 88, Zeilen: 1ff (entire page)
Quelle: Boyce and Xing 2009
Seite(n): 6, 7, Zeilen: 6: 8ff; 7: 1ff
Ha demostrat ser un potent inhibidor de l’osteoclastogenesi in vitro a través de la inhibició del sistema RANKL [242, 243].

6.5. RANK

És una proteïna de membrana homotrimèrica membre de la superfamília del receptor TNF.

Sembla trobar-se expressada en menys teixit que RANKL a nivell proteic, però a part de trobar-la en els osteoclasts en formació i cèl·lules dendrítiques, també s’expressa a les glàndules mamaries i algunes cèl·lules cancerígenes (mama/pròstata) [244].

6.6. OPG

L’OPG és secretada per varis tipus cel·lulars a més dels osteoblasts, fins i tot les cèl·lules del cor, ronyons, fetge i melsa.

Estudis recents refereixen que les cèl·lules B serien responsables del 64% del total de la producció OPG del moll d’os. Aquesta afirmació sorgí arrel d’estudis on els ratolins deficients en cèl·lules B mostraren de forma constant osteoporosi [245].

La majoria de factors que comporten la inducció osteoblàstica de RANKL també regulen l’expressió osteoblàstica de OPG [246].


242. Takayanagi, H., et al., RANKL maintains bone homeostasis through c- Fos-dependent induction of interferon-beta. Nature, 2002. 416(6882): p. 744-9.

243. Takayanagi, H., et al., T-cell-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by signalling cross-talk between RANKL and IFN-gamma. Nature, 2000. 408(6812): p. 600-5.

244. Chen, G., et al., Expression of RANKL/RANK/OPG in primary and metastatic human prostate cancer as markers of disease stage and functional regulation. Cancer, 2006. 107(2): p. 289-98.

245. Li, Y., et al., B cells and T cells are critical for the preservation of bone homeostasis and attainment of peak bone mass in vivo. Blood, 2007. 109(9): p. 3839-48.

246. Hofbauer, L.C. and M. Schoppet, Clinical implications of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases. JAMA, 2004. 292(4): p. 490-5.

It has been reported to be a strong suppressor of osteoclastogenesis in vitro through inhibition of RANKL signaling (54,56). [...]

[...]

RANK

RANK is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It appears to be expressed in fewer tissues than RANKL at the protein level, but in addition to OCPs, mature osteoclasts and dendritic cells, it is expressed in mammary glands (50) and some cancer cells, including breast and prostate cancers (51,62), two tumors with high bone

[page 7]

metastatic potential. [...]


OPG

OPG is secreted by many cell types in addition to osteoblasts, including those in the heart, kidney, liver, and spleen. A recent study reports that B cells may be responsible for 64% of total bone marrow OPG production and B cell-deficient mice are consistently osteoporotic, consistent with B cells being a major source of OPG in the bone marrow of normal mice (65). Most of the factors that induce RANKL expression by osteoblasts also regulate OPG expression (66).


50. Fata JE, Kong YY, Li J, Sasaki T, Irie-Sasaki J, Moorehead RA, Elliott R, Scully S, Voura EB, Lacey DL. The Osteoclast Differentiation Factor Osteoprotegerin-Ligand Is Essential for Mammary Gland Development. Cell 2000;103:41–50. [PubMed: 11051546]

51. Kim NS, Kim HJ, Koo BK, Kwon MC, Kim YW, Cho Y, Yokota Y, Penninger JM, Kong YY. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand regulates the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells via Id2. Mol Cell Biol 2006;26:1002–1013. [PubMed: 16428453]

[53. Takayanagi H, Kim S, Matsuo K, Suzuki H, Suzuki T, Sato K, Yokochi T, Oda H, Nakamura K, Ida N, et al. RANKL maintains bone homeostasis through c-Fos-dependent induction of interferon-beta. [see comment]. Nature 2002;416:744–749. [PubMed: 11961557] ]

54. Takayanagi H, Ogasawara K, Hida S, Chiba T, Murata S, Sato K, Takaoka A, Yokochi T, Oda H, Tanaka K, et al. T-cell-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by signalling cross-talk between RANKL and IFN-gamma. Nature 2000;408:600–605. [PubMed: 11117749]

56. Takayanagi H, Kim S, Taniguchi T. Signaling crosstalk between RANKL and interferons in osteoclast differentiation. Arthritis Res 2002;4 Suppl 3:S227–232. [PubMed: 12110142]

62. Chen G, Sircar K, Aprikian A, Potti A, Goltzman D, Rabbani SA. Expression of RANKL/RANK/ OPG in primary and metastatic human prostate cancer as markers of disease stage and functional regulation. Cancer 2006;107:289–298. [PubMed: 16752412]

65. Li Y, Toraldo G, Li A, Yang X, Zhang H, Qian WP, Weitzmann MN. B cells and T cells are critical for the preservation of bone homeostasis and attainment of peak bone mass in vivo. Blood 2007;109:3839–3848. [PubMed: 17202317]

66. Hofbauer LC, Schoppet M. Clinical implications of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases. Jama 2004;292:490–495. [PubMed: 15280347]

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned although the entire page has been translated from it.

Note that in one instance a different paper of Takayanagi et al. has been referenced in the dissertation than had been referenced in the source. Using the numbering of the source 53 has been used instead of 54.

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