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Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 1-3, 5-28
Quelle: Gewies 2003
Seite(n): 2, Zeilen: 1ff (complete page)
1. Introduction

1. Apoptosis

1.1. The development of the term apoptosis

[...] Apoptosis is of Greek origin, having the meaning "falling off or dropping off", in analogy to leaves falling off trees or petals dropping off flowers. This analogy emphasizes that the death of living matter is an integral and necessary part in the life cycle of organisms.

Since the mid-nineteenth century, many observations have indicated that cell death plays a considerable role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms, particularly during embryogenesis and metamorphosis (Lockshin et al, 2001). The term programmed cell death was introduced in 1964, proposing that cell death during development is not of accidential nature but follows a sequence of controlled steps leading to locally and temporally defined self-destruction (Lockshin et al, 2001).

Eventually, the term apoptosis had been coined in order to describe the morphological processes leading to controlled cellular self-destruction and was first introduced in a publication by Kerr, Wyllie and Currie (Kerr et al, 1972). The apoptotic mode of cell death is an active and defined process which plays an important role in the development of multicellular organisms and in the regulation and maintenance of the cell populations in tissues upon physiological and pathological conditions. It should be stressed that apoptosis is a well-defined and possibly the most frequent form of programmed cell death, but that other, non-apoptotic types of cell death, e.g. necrosis also are of biological significance (Leist et al, 2001).

1.2. The significance of apoptosis

The development and maintenance of multicellular biological systems depends on a sophisticated interplay between the cells forming the organism. It sometimes even seems to involve an altruistic behavior of individual cells in favor of the organism as a whole. During development many cells are produced in excess, which eventually undergo [programmed cell death and thereby contribute to sculpturing many organs and tissues (Meier et al, 2000).]

Introduction to Apoptosis

1. The development of the term apoptosis

Already since the mid-nineteenth century, many observations have indicated that cell death plays a considerable role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms, particularly during embryogenesis and metamorphosis [Gluecksmann, 1951; Lockshin, 2001]. The term programmed cell death was introduced in 1964, proposing that cell death during development is not of accidential nature but follows a sequence of controlled steps leading to locally and temporally defined self-destruction [Lockshin, 1964].

Eventually, the term apoptosis had been coined in order to describe the morphological processes leading to controlled cellular self-destruction and was first introduced in a publication by Kerr, Wyllie and Currie [Kerr, 1972]. Apoptosis is of greek origin, having the meaning "falling off or dropping off", in analogy to leaves falling off trees or petals dropping off flowers. This analogy emphasizes that the death of living matter is an integral and necessary part of the life cycle of organisms. The apoptotic mode of cell death is an active and defined process which plays an important role in the development of multicellular organisms and in the regulation and maintenance of the cell populations in tissues upon physiological and pathological conditions. It should be stressed that apoptosis is a well-defined and possibly the most frequent form of programmed cell death, but that other, non-apoptotic types of cell death also might be of biological significance [Leist, 2001].

2. The significance of apoptosis

The development and maintenance of multicellular biological systems depends on a sophisticated interplay between the cells forming the organism, it sometimes even seems to involve an altruistic behaviour of individual cells in favour of the organism as a whole. During development many cells are produced in excess which eventually undergo programmed cell death and thereby contribute to sculpturing many organs and tissues [Meier, 2000].

Anmerkungen

The sentence which is not documented here comes from the 2005 Wikipedia. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

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