Fandom

VroniPlag Wiki

Analyse:Mma/Fragment 006 01

31.364Seiten in
diesem Wiki
Seite hinzufügen
Diskussion0

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.


Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 1-31 (komplett)
Quelle: Gewies 2003
Seite(n): 2-4, Zeilen: 0
[During development many cells are produced in excess, which eventually undergo] programmed cell death and thereby contribute to sculpturing many organs and tissues (Meier et al, 2000).

A particularly instructive example for the implication of programmed cell death in animal development is the formation of free and independent digits by massive cell death in the interdigital mesenchymal tissue (Zuzarte-Luis et al, 2002). Other examples are the development of the brain, during which half of the neurons that are initially created will die in later stages when the adult brain is formed (Hutchins et al, 1998), as well as the development of the reproductive organs (Meier et al, 2000). Also cells of an adult organism constantly undergo physiological cell death, which must be balanced with proliferation in order to maintain homeostasis in terms of constant cell numbers. The majority of the developing lymphocytes die either during genetic rearrangement events during the formation of the antigen receptor, during negative selection or in the periphery, thereby tightly controlling the pool of highly efficient and functional but not self-reactive immune cells, and at the same time keeping lymphocyte numbers relatively constant (Rathmell et al, 2002). Taken together, apoptotic processes are of widespread biological significance; being involved in e.g. development, differentiation, proliferation/homoeostasis, regulation and function of the immune system and in the removal of defect and therefore harmful cells. Thus, dysfunction or dysregulation of the apoptotic program is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions. Defects in apoptosis can result in cancer, autoimmune diseases and spreading of viral infections, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS (Fadeel et al, 1999).

Due to its importance in such various biological processes, programmed cell death is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in all kinds of metazoans (Tittel et al, 2000) such as in mammals, insects (Richardson et al, 2002), nematodes (Liu et al, 1999), and cnidaria (Cikala et al, 1999). Moreover, programmed cell death also might play a role in plant biology (Solomon et al, 1999), and apoptosis-like cell death mechanisms even have been observed and used as a model system in yeast (Fröhlich et al, 2000; Skulachev et al, 2002). Fascinating insights into the origin and evolution of programmed cell death might possibly be given by the fact, that programmed cell death is also an integral part of the life cycle of other unicellular eukaryotes (such as the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, and the slime mold Dictyostelium [discoideum), and that even prokaryotes (such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces and Myxobacteria) sometimes undergo regulated cell death (Ameisen et al, 2002).]

[page 2]

During development many cells are produced in excess which eventually undergo programmed cell death and thereby contribute to sculpturing many organs and tissues [Meier, 2000].

[page 3]

A particularly instructive example for the implication of programmed cell death in animal development is the formation of free and independent digits by massive cell death in the interdigital mesenchymal tissue [Zuzarte-Luis, 2002]. Other examples are the development of the brain, during which half of the neurons that are initially created will die in later stages when the adult brain is formed [Hutchins, 1998] and the development of the reproductive organs [Meier, 2000]. Also cells of an adult organism constantly undergo physiological cell death which must be balanced with proliferation in order to maintain homeostasis in terms of constant cell numbers. The majority of the developing lymphocytes die either during genetic rearrangement events in the formation of the antigen receptor, during negative selection or in the periphery, thereby tightly controlling the pool of highly efficient and functional but not self-reactive immune cells and at the same time keeping lymphocyte numbers relatively constant [Rathmell, 2002].

Taken together, apoptotic processes are of widespread biological significance, being involved in e.g. development, differentiation, proliferation/homoeostasis, regulation and function of the immune system and in the removal of defect and therefore harmful cells. Thus, dysfunction or dysregulation of the apoptotic program is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions. Defects in apoptosis can result in cancer, autoimmune diseases and spreading of viral infections, while neurodegenerative disorders, AIDS and ischaemic diseases are caused or enhanced by excessive apoptosis [Fadeel, 1999a].

[page 4]

Due to its importance in such various biological processes, programmed cell death is a widespread phenomenon, occuring in all kinds of metazoans [Tittel, 2000] such as in mammals, insects [Richardson, 2002], nematodes [Liu, 1999], and cnidaria [Cikala, 1999]. Moreover, programmed cell death also might play a role in plant biology [Solomon, 1999], and apoptosis-like cell death mechanisms even have been observed and used as a model system in yeast [Frohlich, 2000; Skulachev, 2002]. Fascinating insights into the origin and evolution of programmed cell death might possibly be given by the fact, that programmed cell death is also an integral part of the life cycle of other unicellular eukaryotes (such as the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum) and that even prokaryotes (such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces and Myxobacteria) sometimes undergo regulated cell death [Ameisen, 2002].

Anmerkungen

A copy which even encompasses the references. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

Auch bei Fandom

Zufälliges Wiki