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19 Fragmente

[1.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 019 17 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 26. August 2014, 20:42 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 26. August 2014, 20:16 (Graf Isolan)
Eschenhagen und Zimmermann 2005, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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The term “Tissue Engineering” was introduced in 1987 by members of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) in Washington, D.C. It was defined a year later at an NSF organized conference on tissue engineering in Lake Tahoe, California as “Application of principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure–function relationship in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve functions.” Tissue engineering aims at generating functional three-dimensional tissues outside of the body that can be tailored in size, shape and function according to the particular needs before implanting them into the body. Tissue engineering is no longer restricted to the academic laboratory. Tissueengineered skin is commercially available; cartilage is in clinical trials and should be available within a few years. First clinical experiences have been published using bioengineered skin, cartilage, and vascular grafts 100, 266, 303, but the present data are still preliminary 401.

100. Garfein ES, Orgill DP, Pribaz JJ (2003) Clinical applications of tissue engineered constructs. Clin Plast Surg 30 (4):485-98

266. Rahaman MN, Mao JJ (2005) Stem cell-based composite tissue constructs for regenerative medicine. Biotechnol Bioeng 91 (3):261-84

303. Shinoka T, Matsumura K, Hibino N, Naito Y, Murata A, Kosaka Y, Kurosawa H (2003) Clinical practice of transplantation of regenerated blood vessels using bone marrow cells]. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 92 (9):1776-80

401. Zandonella C (2003) Tissue engineering: The beat goes on. Nature 421 (6926):884-6

The term “Tissue Engineering” was introduced in 1987 by members of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) in Washington, D.C. and defined a year later at an NSF-organized conference on tissue engineering in Lake Tahoe, California as “Application of principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure–function relationship in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve functions.”

[...] Tissue engineering aims at generating functional 3D tissues outside of the body that can by [sic] tailored in size, shape, and function according to the respective needs before implanting them into the body. First clinical experiences have been published using bioengineered skin, cartilage, and vascular grafts,7–9 but the present data are still preliminary (for review of the “bioartificial heart,” see also ref 10).


7. Garfein ES, Orgill DP, Pribaz JJ. Clinical applications of tissue engineered constructs. Clin Plast Surg. 2003;30:485– 498.

8. Shinoka T, Matsumura K, Hibino N, Naito Y, Murata A, Kosaka Y, Kurosawa H. [Clinical practice of transplantation of regenerated blood vessels using bone marrow cells]. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2003; 92:1776–1780.

9. Rahaman MN, Mao JJ Stem cell-based composite tissue constructs for regenerative medicine. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005.

10. Zandonella C. The beat goes on. Nature. 2003;421:884–886.

Anmerkungen

Wortwörtliche Übernahme inklusive der Literaturreferenzen. Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Der hier fehlende Teil der Zeilen 11-17 der ungenannt bleibenden Quelle wird von Sih auf der folgenden Seite präsentiert (vgl. Sih/Fragment_020_04).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[2.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 021 08 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 13:29 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 13:26 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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1.2.1 State of the art

Important procedures in tissue engineering include the isolation and selection of organotypic cells from small tissue biopsies, their ex vivo proliferation by cell culture techniques in bioreactor, and the seeding of these cells into suitable biocompatible matrices. These constructs are commonly transferred from the in vitro situation into an in vivo state (transplantation).

INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANT PROCEDURES in tissue engineering include the isolation and selection of organotypic cells from small tissue biopsies, their ex vivo proliferation by cell culture techniques, and the seeding of these cells into suitable biocompatible matrices. These constructs are commonly transferred from the in vitro situation into an in vivo animal model.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[3.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 022 30 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 14:48 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 14:48 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on [diffusion processes. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimetres, initial vascularisation from the surrounding host tissue is necessary.] The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on diffusion processes. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimeters, initial vascularization from the surrounding host tissue is necessary.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[4.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 023 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 14:50 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 14:50 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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[The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on] diffusion processes. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimetres, initial vascularisation from the surrounding host tissue is necessary. The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on diffusion processes. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimeters, initial vascularization from the surrounding host tissue is necessary.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. (Siehe auch [Sih/Fragment_022_30]).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[5.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 027 10 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 4. September 2014, 13:22 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 4. September 2014, 13:18 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Ott et al 2008, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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The creation of ‘thick’ (>100–200 μm) cardiac patches has been limited by an inability to create the geometry necessary to support the high oxygen and energy demands of cardiomyocytes at a depth greater than ≈100 μm from the surface 85, 265.

85. Eschenhagen T, Zimmermann WH (2005) Engineering myocardial tissue. Circ Res 97 (12):1220-31

265. Radisic M, Deen W, Langer R, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2005) Mathematical model of oxygen distribution in engineered cardiac tissue with parallel channel array perfused with culture medium containing oxygen carriers. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288 (3):1278-89

The creation of ‘thick’ (>100–200 μm) cardiac patches has been limited by an inability to create the geometry necessary to support the high oxygen and energy demands of cardiomyocytes at a depth greater than ∼100 μm from the surface2,6.

2. Eschenhagen, T. & Zimmermann, W.H. Engineering myocardial tissue. Circ. Res. 97, 1220–1231 (2005).

6. Radisic, M., Deen, W., Langer, R. & Vunjak-Novakovic, G. Mathematical model of oxygen distribution in engineered cardiac tissue with parallel channel array perfused with culture medium containing oxygen carriers. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 288, H1278–H1289 (2005).

Anmerkungen

Wörtlich übereinstimmend, inklusive der Literaturreferenzen. Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[6.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 027 16 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 4. September 2014, 22:03 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 4. September 2014, 21:45 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Shimizu et al 2003, Sih, ZuSichten

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The cell sheet engineering process used the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) to coat tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes, changing their property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic with change of temperature 302. Normal TCPS dishes are hydrophobic and absorb extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in cell attachment and proliferation. The surfaces of PIPAAm are hydrophobic and cells adhere and proliferate under culture condition at 37° C. By lowering temperature below 32° C, the surfaces change reversibly to hydrophilic and not cell adhesive due to rapid hydration and swelling of the grafted PIPAAm. This unique surface change allows cultured cells to detach spontaneously from these grafted surfaces simply by lowering temperature. However, unlike trypsin treatment to harvest cells from culture dishes (which cause disruption to both adhesive proteins and membrane receptors and cells detach with considerable damages and cells are separated), this method allows harvesting cells in a single layer. These are then piled up to form a multilayer tissue like structure.

302. Shimizu T, Yamato M, Kikuchi A, Okano T (2003) Cell sheet engineering for myocardial tissue reconstruction. Biomaterials 24 (13):2309-16

Normal tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes are hydrophobic and absorb ECM proteins resulting in cell attachment and proliferation. To harvest cells from the surfaces, enzymatic digestion including trypsin and dispase are usually utilized. In that case, both adhesive proteins and membrane receptors are disrupted, then cells detach with considerable damages (Fig. 2B). On the other hand, we graft temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PIPAAm) to TCPS dishes covalently by electron beam. The surfaces are hydrophobic and cells adhere and proliferate under culture condition at 37°C. By lowering temperature below 32°C, the surfaces change reversibly to hydrophilic and not cell adhesive due to rapid hydration and swelling of the grafted PIPAAm. This unique surface change allows cultured cells to detach spontaneously from these grafted surfaces simply by lowering temperature [18].

[18] Yamada N, Okano T, Sakai H, Karikusa F, Sawasaki Y, Sakurai Y. Thermo-responsive polymeric surfaces; control of attachment and detachment of cultured cells. Makromol Chem Rapid Commun 1990;11:571–6.

Anmerkungen

Art und Umfang der Übernahme bleiben ungekennzeichnet.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[7.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 030 12 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 13:46 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 13:41 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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As the development proceeds, a fluid filled sac called amniotic cavity surrounds the embryo and the CAM is formed on the fourth day of incubation by the fusion of the ectodermal epithelium (chorion) and the endodermal epithelium (allantois). At this stage, undifferentiated blood vessels are scattered in the mesoderm of the CAM. These vessels grow rapidly until day 8, when some vessels differentiate into capillaries and form a layer at the base of the ectoderm. At ID 14, 6 days before hatching, the capillary plexus is located at the surface of the ectoderm adjacent to the shell membrane 282. This extraembryonic membrane serves as a transient gas exchange surface similar to the lung. An extensive capillary network provides its respiratory function. The CAM functions for gas exchange (lung), storage of excretory urinary products (reservoir function), and mobilization of calcium from the shell to start bone mineralization (mineral resorption).

282. Romanoff AL (1960) The Avian Embryo. Macmillan, New York

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane is an extraembryonic membrane that serves as a transient gas exchange surface similar to the lung. Its respiratory function is provided by an extensive capillary network.13 The CAM is formed on the fourth day of incubation by the fusion of the ectodermal epithelium (chorion) and the endodermal epithelium (allantois). At this stage, undifferentiated blood vessels are scattered in the mesoderm of the CAM. These vessels grow rapidly until day 8, when some vessels differentiate into capillaries and form a layer at the base of the ectoderm. At day 14, 6 days before hatching, the capillary plexus is located at the surface of the ectoderm adjacent to the shell membrane14,15 (Fig. 1). As the only vascularized epithelium, the CAM functions for gas exchange (lung), storage of excretory urinary products (reservoir function), and mobilization of calcium from the shell to start bone mineralization (mineral resorption).

13. Romanoff, A.L. Membrane growth and function. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 55, 288, 1952.

14. Leeson, T.S., and Leeson, C.R. The chorio-allantois of the chick: Light and electron microscopic observations at various times of incubation. J. Anat. 79, 585, 1964.

15. Rizzo, V., Kim, D., Duran, W.N., and DeFouw, D.O. Differentiation of the microvascular endothelium during early angiogenesis and respiratory onset in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Tissue Cell 27, 159, 1995.

27. Romanoff, A.L. The Avian Embryo. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[8.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 036 Fig - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 14:39 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 14:39 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Figure 1.9: Structural reorganization of the CAM between ID 8 and ID 12.

Structure of the CAM of a chick embryo on (a) ID 8, (b) ID 10, and (c) ID 12. Shown is development from subepithelial (a), intraepithelial (b), to supraepithelial (c) vascularisation of the CAM. CE, Chorion epithelium; EC, endothelial cell type of capillary; P, pericyte; SM, shell membrane; BM, basal membrane. (redrawn after Fitze-Gschwind, 1973) 89.


89. Fitze-Gschwind V (1973) Zur Entwicklung der Chorioallantoismembran des Hühnchens. Anat Embryol Cell Biol 47 (1):

FIG. 1. Structural reorganization of the CAM between ID 8 and ID 12 (modified after Fitze-Gschwind21). Structure of the CAM of a chick embryo on (a) ID8, (b) ID 10, and (c) ID 12. Shown is development from subepithelial (a), intraepithelial (b), to supraepithelial (c) vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane. CE, Chorion epithelium; EC, endothelial cell type of capillary; P, pericyte; SM, shell membrane; BM, basal membrane.

21. Fitze-Gschwind, V. Zur Entwicklung der Chorioallantoismembran des Hühnchens. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 47, 1, 1973.

Anmerkungen

Bild, Legende und Literaturverweis identisch. Ohne Hinweis auf die eigentliche Quelle. Da bei Sih an dieser Stelle jeder Verweis auf eine weitere Quelle fehlt, eignet er sich die Leistung des "redrawn" an, die aber offensichtlich schon früher von anderen erfolgt ist.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[9.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 041 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 21:16 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 20:57 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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In 1964 Rosenberg introduced the use of a fluid substrate for the growth of both transformed and anchorage-dependent cells 284, 285. In this method, a cell suspension is introduced over an inert hydrophobic liquid having a density greater than that of the aqueous medium, and cells are observed to spread and divide on the liquid│liquid interface between the two immiscible phases. As is the case for solid substrates, the cells do not interact directly with the interface but rather with proteins that adsorb to the interfacial junction. These proteins presumably denature as their polypeptide chains unfold to achieve a low energy orientation with most of the hydrophilic portions exposed to the aqueous phase and the hydrophobic portions in the inert nonaqueous phase.

284. Rosenberg MD (1964) In Cellular Control Mechanisms and Cancer. Elsevier, Amsterdam

285. Rosenberg MD (1965) In Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands

In 1964 Rosenberg introduced the use of a fluid substrate for the growth of both transformed and anchorage-dependent cells (2, 3). In this method a cell suspension is introduced over an inert hydrophobic liquid having a density greater than that of the aqueous medium, and cells are observed to spread and divide on the liquid-liquid interface between the two immiscible phases. As is the case for solid substrates, the cells do not interact directly with the interface but rather with proteins that adsorb to the interfacial junction. These proteins presumably denature as their polypeptide chains unfold to achieve a low energy orientation with most of the hydrophillic portions exposed to the aqueous phase and the hydrophobic portions in the inert nonaqueous phase (4).

2. Rosenberg, M. D. (1964) in Cellular Control Mechanisms and Cancer, eds. Emmelot, P. & Mihlbock, 0. (Elsevier, Amsterdam), pp. 146-164.

3. Rosenberg, M. D. (1965) in Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar, ed. Ramakrishnan, C. V. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands), pp. 93-107.

4. Shaw, D. J. (1966) Introduction to Collid and Surface Chemistry (Butterworths, London), p. 57.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Die Passage wird schon einmal später in der Dissertation (ohne Nachweis) verwendet (vgl. Sih/Fragment_175_03).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[10.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 042 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 31. August 2014, 21:02 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 30. August 2014, 13:52 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Cells grown on such substrates can be transferred by simply pipetting the cell layer. Such a procedure of cell harvesting is especially important where the effect of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells should be avoided. The compositions of cell membrane proteins are changed by enzymatic treatment or by mechanical scraping 301. Such a procedure is of particular interest in that it obviates the use of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells and avoids the uncertain effects of such treatments. If the adsorbed serum proteins at the interface are crosslinked by glutaraldehyde or if a bimolecular layer of proteins is formed by using polylysine as a base coat 88, the patterns of cell growth can be altered significantly.

88. Feder J, Giaever I (1980) Adsorption of ferritin. J Colloid Interface Sci 78 144-54

301. Shaw DJ (1966) Introduction to Collid and Surface Chemistry. Butterworths, London

[Seite 219]

In addition, cells grown on such substrates can be transferred from one fluid interface to another or from a fluid to a solid substrate by simply pipetting the cell layer. Such a procedure is of particular interest in that it obviates the use of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells and avoids the uncertain effects of such treatments.

[Seite 221]

If the adsorbed serum proteins at the interface. are crosslinked by using glutaraldehyde or if a bimolecular layer of proteins is formed by using polylysine as a base coat (6), the patterns of cell growth can be altered significantly.


4. Shaw, D. J. (1966) Introduction to Collid and Surface Chemistry (Butterworths, London), p. 57.

6. Feder, J. & Giaever, I. (1980) J. Colloid Interface Sci. 78, 144-154.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Formulierungen der Vorlage werden an dieser Stelle gleich zweimal verwendet. Auf Seite 175 wiederholt sich das Spiel (vgl. Sih/Fragment_175_17).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[11.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 042 18 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 21:31 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 21:31 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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The fluorocarbon│aqueous interface is well suited to provide an inert, nontoxic, hydrophobic substrate for cell growth. It has the advantage of being exceptionally homogeneous and reproducible when compared with hydrophobic solid surfaces, which, in general, have polar molecular inhomogeneities. We have found the fluorocarbon interface to be well suited to provide an inert, nontoxic, hydrophobic substrate for cell growth. It has the advantage of being exceptionally homogeneous and reproducible when compared with hydrophobic solid surfaces which, in general, have polar molecular inhomogeneities (3, 5).

3. Rosenberg, M. D. (1965) in Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar, ed. Ramakrishnan, C. V. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands), pp. 93-107.

5. Maroudas, N. G. (1973) Nature (London) 244, 353-354.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[12.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 050 05 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 18:15 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 18:14 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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However, the limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is the sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen, which relies entirely on diffusion processes. The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on diffusion processes.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Passage wurde schon mal in SiH präsentiert und wird im folgenden auch noch öfters auftauchen.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[13.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 056 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 10:41 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 10:40 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, Ruffins et al 2002, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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Laser scanning microscopy

Laser scanning microscopy has continued to develop and has proved itself to be an excellent tool for in vivo microscopy due to its ability to collect ‘optical sections’ through the specimen. By raster scanning a laser beam over the focal plane and blocking light from elsewhere with a confocal pinhole in front of the detector, an image largely devoid of out-of-focus fluorescence can be generated. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) works well for imaging near the surface (within 100 μm). At greater depths, scattering in the tissue and blurring due to the tissue optics make collection of light through a detector pinhole inefficient. A more significant limitation is the photo bleaching from CLSM, because it excites fluorescence throughout the depth of the specimen even when it is collecting a single optical section. Despite these difficulties, CLSM images have offered important glimpses into the developing embryo 279, 374. In preparations with no absorbance of the intense infrared pulses and limited light scattering, two-photon microscopy has permitted observation of live cells and intact tissues with startling resolution 238, 262.


238. Nimchinsky EA, Oberlander AM, Svoboda K (2001) Abnormal development of dendritic spines in FMR1 knock-out mice. J Neurosci 21 (14):5139-46

262. Potter SM, Pine J, Fraser SE (1996) Neural transplant staining with DiI and vital imaging by 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy. Scanning Microsc Suppl 10 189-99

279. Ritter DA, Bhatt DH, Fetcho JR (2001) In vivo imaging of zebrafish reveals differences in the spinal networks for escape and swimming movements. J Neurosci 21 (22):8956-65

374. Wallingford JB, Ewald AJ, Harland RM, Fraser SE (2001) Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus. Curr Biol 11 (9):652-61

Laser scanning microscopy

Laser scanning microscopy has continued to develop and has proved itself to be an excellent tool for in vivo microscopy due to its ability to collect ‘optical sections’ through the specimen. By raster scanning a laser beam over the focal plane and blocking light from elsewhere with a confocal pinhole in front of the detector, an image largely devoid of out-of-focus fluorescence can be generated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) works well for imaging near the surface (within 100 μm). At greater depths, scattering in the tissue and blurring due to the tissue optics make collection of light through a detector pinhole inefficient. A more significant limitation is the photobleaching from CLSM, because it excites fluorescence throughout the depth of the specimen even when it is collecting a single optical section. Despite these difficulties, CLSM images have offered important glimpses into the developing embryo [20,21].

[...] In preparations with no absorbance of the intense infrared pulses and limited light scattering, two-photon microscopy has permitted observation of live cells and intact tissues with startling resolution [23–25].


20. Wallingford JB, Ewald AJ, Harland RM, Fraser SE: Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus. Curr Biol 2001, 11:652-661.

21. Ritter DA, Bhatt DH, Fetcho JR: In vivo imaging of zebrafish reveals differences in the spinal networks for escape and swimming movements. J Neurosci 2001, 21:8956-8965.

23. Potter SM, Pine J, Fraser SE: Neural transplant staining with DiI and vital imaging with 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy. Scanning Microsc Suppl 1996, 10:189-199.

24. Nimchinsky EA, Oberlander AM, Svoboda K: Abnormal development of dendritic spines in fMR1 knock-out mice. J Neurosci 2001, 21:5139-5146.

25. Kaneko T, Fujita K, Tanaka H, Oyamada M, Nakamura O, Kawata S, Takamatsu T: Real-time two-photon microscopy and its application for in situ imaging. Acta Histochem 2001, 34:399-403.

Anmerkungen

Identisch bis hin zu den Literaturverweisen. Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[14.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 056 19 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 27. August 2014, 21:46 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 27. August 2014, 20:59 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, Mietchen 2006, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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Quelle: Mietchen 2006
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3.4 Microscopic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (μMRI)

In short, magnetic resonance is the absorption of electromagnetic energy by a subpopulation of atomic nuclei in an external static homogenous magnetic field when irradiated at an isotope specific resonance frequency directly proportional to the local magnetic field strength. When the absorbed energy is released upon return to the thermal equilibrium, an inductive signal can be observed which contains chemical and – under special conditions – spatial information about the molecular composition of the irradiated sample. The concept has repeatedly found comprehensive treatment elsewhere – (see, e.g., 2, 306 for spectroscopy and 29, 45 for imaging ) and will therefore only briefly be sketched here.

Atoms exposed to an external magnetic field B0 experience a Zeeman splitting of their energy levels such that the magnetic quantum number m can take on all integer [values between +I and –I, the extremal values of the spin quantum number I, provided that I ≠ 0.]


2. Abragam A (1961) The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism. Clarendon Press, Oxford

29. Blümich B, Kuhn W (1992) Magnetic resonance microscopy: methods and applications in materials science, agriculture and biomedicine. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Basel, Cambridge, New York

45. Callaghan PT (1991) Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Oxford University Press, Clarendon, Oxford, New York, Auckland, Bangkok, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Chennai, Dar e Salaam, Delhi, Hong Kong, Istanbul, Karachi, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur, Madrid, Mexico City, Mumbai, Nairobi, Sao Paulo, Shanghai

306. Slichter CP (1978) Principles of Magnetic Resonance. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York

1.2. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM)

In short, magnetic resonance is the absorption of electromagnetic energy by a subpopulation of atomic nuclei in an external static magnetic field when irradiated at an isotope-specific resonance frequency directly proportional to the local magnetic field strength. When the absorbed energy is released upon return to the thermal equilibrium, an inductive signal can be observed which contains chemical and – under special conditions – spatial information about the molecular composition of the irradiated sample. The concept has repeatedly found comprehensive treatment elsewhere – see, e.g., Abragam (1961) or Slichter (1978) for spectroscopy and Callaghan (1991) or Blümich and Kuhn (1992) for imaging – and will therefore only briefly be sketched here.

Atoms exposed to an external magnetic field B0 experience a Zeeman splitting of their energy levels such that the magnetic quantum number m can take on all integer values between +I and –I, the extremal values of the spin quantum number I, provided that I ≠ 0.


Abragam, A.: The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Clarendon, Oxford, 1961.

Blümich, B. and Kuhn, W., eds.: Magnetic resonance microscopy: methods and applications in materials science, agriculture and biomedicine, VCH, Weinheim, Basel, Cambridge, New York, 1992.

Callaghan, P. T.: Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy, Oxford University Press, Clarendon, 1991.

Slichter, C. P.: Principles of Magnetic Resonance, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1978.

Anmerkungen

Identisch bis hin zu den Literaturangaben. Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[15.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 063 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 27. August 2014, 20:27 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 27. August 2014, 20:24 (Graf Isolan)
Balaban und Hampshire 2001, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

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Seite(n): 251, Zeilen: li. Sp. 27ff
[Because the] absorption of these oscillating magnetic fields is relatively low in biological tissues, the penetration of these signals is excellent in most studies. The detection of the naturally occurring nuclide 1H found in water and fats is usually used for MRI studies providing an adequate SNR to create images with sub millimeter resolution in vivo. The MRI signal from water protons is rich in informationn [sic] about the physiology and function of tissues because it is the solvent of the cell with very little occurring without some impact on the magnetic properties of this molecule 23. This information includes a diverse amount of information on blood flow and oxygenation as well as macromolecular composition and motion, tissue structure, temperature, contractile activity, nerve and muscle fibre orientation, and oedema.

23. Balaban RS (1998) Physiological and biochemical information from water in cardiac MRI. In: Current and Future Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Cardiovascular Disease. Futura Publishing Inc, New York

Because the absorption of these oscillating magnetic fields is relatively low in biological tissues, the penetration of these signals is excellent in most studies. The detection of the naturally occurring nuclide 1H found in water and fats is usually used for MRI studies providing an adequate SNR to create images with submillimeter resolution in vivo. The MRI signal from water protons is rich in information about the physiology and function of tissues because it is the solvent of the cell with very little occurring without some impact on the magnetic properties of this molecule (Balaban 1998). This information includes a diverse amount of information on blood flow and oxygenation as well as macromolecular composition and motion, tissue structure, temperature, contractile activity, nerve and muscle fiber orientation, and edema.

Balaban RS. 1998. Physiological and biochemical information from water in cardiac MRI. In: Higgins CB, Ingwall JS, Pohost GM, eds. Current and Future Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Cardiovascular Disease. Armonk NY: Futura Publishing Inc. p 321-336.

Anmerkungen

Die amerikanischen "fiber" und "edama" wurden durch die britischen Pendants ersetzt. Ansonsten identisch (inkl. Literaturreferenz) ohne Kennzeichnung einer Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[16.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 172 16 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 15:00 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 14:58 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Quelle: Borges et al 2003
Seite(n): 441, Zeilen: re. Sp. 1-7
The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is the sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. The current tissue engineering approach relies entirely on diffusion processes for this supply. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimetres, initial vascularisation from the surrounding host tissue is necessary. The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. This supply relies on diffusion processes. Furthermore, to supply tissue-engineered constructs thicker than a few millimeters, initial vascularization from the surrounding host tissue is necessary.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Passage wurde schon früher einmal (ohne Kenntlichmachung) - dort noch weniger modifiziert - in die Dissertation "eingearbeitet" (vgl. [Sih/Fragment_022_30] bzw. [Sih/Fragment_023_01]).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[17.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 175 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 21:15 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 21:13 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 175, Zeilen: 3-9
Quelle: Giaever und Keese 1983
Seite(n): 219, Zeilen: li. Sp. 22ff
In 1964 Rosenberg introduced the use of a fluid substrate for the growth of both transformed and anchorage-dependent cells 284, 285. In this method a cell suspension is introduced over an inert hydrophobic liquid having a density greater than that of the aqueous medium, and cells are observed to spread and divide at the liquid│liquid interface between the two immiscible phases. As is the case for solid substrates, the cells do not interact directly with the interface but rather with proteins that adsorb to the interfacial junction.

284. Rosenberg MD (1964) In Cellular Control Mechanisms and Cancer. Elsevier, Amsterdam

285. Rosenberg MD (1965) In Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands

In 1964 Rosenberg introduced the use of a fluid substrate for the growth of both transformed and anchorage-dependent cells (2, 3). In this method a cell suspension is introduced over an inert hydrophobic liquid having a density greater than that of the aqueous medium, and cells are observed to spread and divide on the liquid-liquid interface between the two immiscible phases. As is the case for solid substrates, the cells do not interact directly with the interface but rather with proteins that adsorb to the interfacial junction.

2. Rosenberg, M. D. (1964) in Cellular Control Mechanisms and Cancer, eds. Emmelot, P. & Mihlbock, 0. (Elsevier, Amsterdam), pp. 146-164.

3. Rosenberg, M. D. (1965) in Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar, ed. Ramakrishnan, C. V. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands), pp. 93-107.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Die Passage wurde schon einmal in der Dissertation (ohne Nachweis) verwendet (vgl. Sih/Fragment_041_01).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[18.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 175 17 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 31. August 2014, 21:07 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 31. August 2014, 20:20 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 175, Zeilen: 17-22, 24-29
Quelle: Giaever und Keese 1983
Seite(n): 219, 221, Zeilen: 219:li.Sp. 43-49 - re.Sp. 1-3; 221:re.Sp. 4-7
This method of cell culture has the advantage of being exceptionally homogeneous and reproducible when compared with hydrophobic solid surfaces, which, in general, have polar molecular inhomogeneities. In addition, cells grown on such substrates can be transferred by simply pipetting the cell layer. Such procedure of cell harvesting is especially important where the effect of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells can be avoided. It is here to be mentioned that the compositions of cell membrane proteins are changed by enzymatic treatment or by mechanical scraping 301. Such a procedure is of particular interest in that it obviates the use of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells and avoids the uncertain effects of such treatments. If the adsorbed serum proteins at the interface are crosslinked by glutaraldehyde or if a bimolecular layer of proteins is formed by using polylysine as a base coat 88, the patterns of cell growth can be altered significantly.

88. Feder J, Giaever I (1980) Adsorption of ferritin. J Colloid Interface Sci 78 144-54

301. Shaw DJ (1966) Introduction to Collid and Surface Chemistry. Butterworths, London

[Seite 219]

It has the advantage of being exceptionally homogeneous and reproducible when compared with hydrophobic solid surfaces which, in general, have polar molecular inhomogeneities (3, 5). In addition, cells grown on such substrates can be transferred from one fluid interface to another or from a fluid to a solid substrate by simply pipetting the cell layer. Such a procedure is of particular interest in that it obviates the use of trypsin or other proteolytic enzymes or chelating agents to passage cultured cells and avoids the uncertain effects of such treatments.

[Seite 221]

If the adsorbed serum proteins at the interface. are crosslinked by using glutaraldehyde or if a bimolecular layer of proteins is formed by using polylysine as a base coat (6), the patterns of cell growth can be altered significantly.


3. Rosenberg, M. D. (1965) in Baroda Tissue Culture Seminar, ed. Ramakrishnan, C. V. (Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands), pp. 93-107.

4. Shaw, D. J. (1966) Introduction to Collid and Surface Chemistry (Butterworths, London), p. 57.

5. Maroudas, N. G. (1973) Nature (London) 244, 353-354.

6. Feder, J. & Giaever, I. (1980) J. Colloid Interface Sci. 78, 144-154.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Die Formulierungen der Vorlage werden an dieser Stelle gleich zweimal verwendet. Dasselbe ist schon mal auf Seite 42 passiert (vgl. Sih/Fragment_042_01).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[19.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 176 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 1. September 2014, 16:41 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 1. September 2014, 16:41 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, Giaever und Keese 1983, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Quelle: Giaever und Keese 1983
Seite(n): 219, Zeilen: li.Sp. 38-41
It is a matter of regret that since the original work was published in 1964, there seems to have been relatively little interest in the growth of cells on fluid substrates in spite of many advantages not afforded by solid substrates in culture. Since the original work was published, there seems to have been relatively little interest in the growth of cells on fluid substrates in spite of some advantages not afforded by solid substrates in studying cell behavior in culture.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


Fragmente (Verdächtig / Keine Wertung)

3 Fragmente

[1.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 020 04 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 26. August 2014, 20:57 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 26. August 2014, 20:40 (Graf Isolan)
Eschenhagen und Zimmermann 2005, Fragment, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

Typus
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Quelle: Eschenhagen und Zimmermann 2005
Seite(n): 1220, Zeilen: li. Sp. 11-17
The second approach can be synonymous with, “cell therapy” which intends to promote the formation of new tissue or to improve the function of an existing tissue by injecting or infusing suspensions of isolated cells. This concept has gained much attraction over the past years; studies have been performed in animals 53, 164, 167, 168, 307 and are currently tested in controlled clinical trials 70, 173, 207, 208, 220, 221, 318, 370.

53. Chiu RC, Zibaitis A, Kao RL (1995) Cellular cardiomyoplasty: myocardial regeneration with satellite cell implantation. Ann Thorac Surg 60 (1):12-8

70. Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, Schneider MD (2005) Unchain my heart: the scientific foundations of cardiac repair. J Clin Invest 115 (3):572-83

164. Klug MG, Soonpaa MH, Koh GY, Field LJ (1996) Genetically selected cardiomyocytes from differentiating embronic stem cells form stable intracardiac grafts. J Clin Invest 98 (1):216-24

167. Koh GY, Klug MG, Soonpaa MH, Field LJ (1993) Differentiation and long-term survival of C2C12 myoblast grafts in heart. J Clin Invest 92 (3):1548-54

168. Koh GY, Soonpaa MH, Klug MG, Field LJ (1993) Long-term survival of AT-1 cardiomyocyte grafts in syngeneic myocardium. Am J Physiol 264 (5):1727-33

173. Laflamme MA, Murry CE (2005) Regenerating the heart. Nat Biotechnol 23 (7):845-56

207. Menasche P (2005) Skeletal myoblast for cell therapy. Coron Artery Dis 16 (2):105-10

208. Menasche P, Hagege AA, Scorsin M, Pouzet B, Desnos M, Duboc D, Schwartz K, Vilquin JT, Marolleau JP (2001) Myoblast transplantation for heart failure. Lancet 357 (9252):279-80

220. Murry CE, Whitney ML, Laflamme MA, Reinecke H, Field LJ (2002) Cellular therapies for myocardial infarct repair. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 67 519-26

221. Nadal-Ginard B, Kajstura J, Anversa P, Leri A (2003) A matter of life and death: cardiac myocyte apoptosis and regeneration. J Clin Invest 111 (10):1457-9

307. Soonpaa MH, Koh GY, Klug MG, Field LJ (1994) Formation of nascent intercalated disks between grafted fetal cardiomyocytes and host myocardium. Science 264 (5155):98-101

318. Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, Gattermann N, Hernandez A, Sorg RV, Kogler G, Wernet P (2001) [Intracoronary, human autologous stem cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration following myocardial infarction]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 126 (34-35):932-8

370. von Harsdorf R, Poole-Wilson PA, Dietz R (2004) Regenerative capacity of the myocardium: implications for treatment of heart failure. Lancet 363 (9417):1306-13

The “repair” part of tissue engineering overlaps, but is not synonymous with, “cell therapy” which intends to promote the formation of new tissue or to improve the function of an existing tissue by injecting or infusing suspensions of isolated cells. This concept has gained much attraction over the past years and is currently tested in controlled clinical trials (for review see references 1–6).

1. Murry CE, Whitney ML, Laflamme MA, Reinecke H, Field LJ. Cellular therapies for myocardial infarct repair. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002;67:519–526.

2. Nadal-Ginard B, Kajstura J, Anversa P, Leri A. A matter of life and death: cardiac myocyte apoptosis and regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2003; 111:1457–1459.

3. von Harsdorf R, Poole-Wilson PA, Dietz R. Regenerative capacity of the myocardium: implications for treatment of heart failure. Lancet. 2004; 363:1306–1313.

4. Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, Schneider MD. Unchain my heart: the scientific foundations of cardiac repair. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:572–583.

5. Menasche P. Skeletal myoblast for cell therapy. Coron Artery Dis. 2005;16:105–110.

6. Laflamme MA, Murry CE. Regenerating the heart. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:845– 856.

Anmerkungen

Wörtlich übereinstimmend; ohne Hinweis auf die eigentliche Quelle (vgl. auch Sih/Fragment_019_17). Die in der Quelle angegebenen Literaturangaben sind alle bei Sih wiederzufinden.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[2.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 028 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 4. September 2014, 21:28 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 4. September 2014, 21:27 (Graf Isolan)
Fragment, KeineWertung, Ott et al 2008, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

Typus
KeineWertung
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 28, Zeilen: 3-4
Quelle: Ott et al 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: re. Sp. 1ff
However, for other tissue like heart, it is still in the laboratorywith no promising results 51, 68, 101, 103, 155, 244, 278.

51. Chen RN, Ho HO, Tsai YT, Sheu MT (2004) Process development of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for biomedical applications. Biomaterials 25 (13):2679-86

68. Dellgren G, Eriksson MJ, Brodin LA, Radegran K (2002) Eleven years' experience with the Biocor stentless aortic bioprosthesis: clinical and hemodynamic follow-up with long-term relative survival rate. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22 (6):912-21

101. Gerecht-Nir S, Radisic M, Park H, Cannizzaro C, Boublik J, Langer R, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2006) Biophysical regulation during cardiac development and application to tissue engineering. Int J Dev Biol 50 (2-3):233-43

103. Gilbert TW, Sellaro TL, Badylak SF (2006) Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials 27 (19):3675-83

155. Ketchedjian A, Jones AL, Krueger P, Robinson E, Crouch K, Wolfinbarger L, Jr., Hopkins R (2005) Recellularization of decellularized allograft scaffolds in ovine great vessel reconstructions. Ann Thorac Surg 79 (3):888-96

244. Ott HC, Matthiesen TS, Goh SK, Black LD, Kren SM, Netoff TI, Taylor DA (2008) Perfusiondecellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart. Nat Med 14 (2):213-21

278. Rieder E, Kasimir MT, Silberhumer G, Seebacher G, Wolner E, Simon P, Weigel G (2004) Decellularization protocols of porcine heart valves differ importantly in efficiency of cell removal and susceptibility of the matrix to recellularization with human vascular cells. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127 (2):399-405

To create a whole-heart scaffold with intact three-dimensional geometry and vasculature, we attempted to decellularize cadaveric hearts by coronary perfusion with detergents, which have been shown to generate acellular scaffolds for less complex tissues, by direct immersion10–14. We then repopulated decellularized rat hearts with neonatal cardiac cells or rat aortic endothelial cells and cultured these recellularized constructs under simulated physiological conditions for organ maturation15.

10. Dellgren, G., Eriksson, M.J., Brodin, L.A. & Radegran, K. Eleven years’ experience with the Biocor stentless aortic bioprosthesis: clinical and hemodynamic follow-up with long-term relative survival rate. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 22, 912–921 (2002).

11. Rieder, E. et al. Decellularization protocols of porcine heart valves differ importantly in efficiency of cell removal and susceptibility of the matrix to recellularization with human vascular cells. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 127, 399–405 (2004).

12. Ketchedjian, A. et al. Recellularization of decellularized allograft scaffolds in ovine great vessel reconstructions. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 888–896 (2005).

13. Chen, R.N., Ho, H.O., Tsai, Y.T. & Sheu, M.T. Process development of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for biomedical applications. Biomaterials 25, 2679–2686 (2004).

14. Gilbert, T.W., Sellaro, T.L. & Badylak, S.F. Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials 27, 3675–3683 (2006).

15. Gerecht-Nir, S. et al. Biophysical regulation during cardiac development and application to tissue engineering. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 50, 233–243 (2006).

Anmerkungen

Hier werden der Einfachheit halber die in der Vorlage genannten Quellen "abgegriffen".

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)

[3.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 166 31 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. August 2014, 20:26 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 28. August 2014, 20:26 (Graf Isolan)
Borges et al 2003, Fragment, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, ZuSichten

Typus
KeineWertung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 166, Zeilen: 31-32
Quelle: Borges et al 2003
Seite(n): 441, Zeilen: re. Sp. 1ff
In traditional tissue engineering the limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is [an insufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen.] The limiting factor for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted cells is a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen.
Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Passage wurde nun schon öfter in SiH präsentiert und wird im folgenden noch einmal auftauchen.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


Fragmente (Kein Plagiat)

Kein Fragment



Fragmente (Verwaist)

1 Fragment

[1.] Analyse:Sih/Fragment 062 22 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 27. August 2014, 20:40 Graf Isolan
Erstellt: 26. August 2014, 21:29 (Graf Isolan)
Balaban und Hampshire 2001, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sih, Unfertig

Typus
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 62, Zeilen: 22-30
Quelle: Balaban und Hampshire 2001
Seite(n): 251, Zeilen: li. Sp. 7-8, 16ff
3.5.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

Magnetic resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) generally gathers the spectral information in the magnetic signals from the nuclides, which permits the determination of the molecules or metabolites containing a given nuclide. The collection of this additional information in MRS along with the fact that metabolites are generally at low concentration results in the MRS experiment having a low SNR. These combined effects make any images collected with MRS very poor in spatial and temporal resolution. MRI and MRS must be conducted in a strong homogeneous magnetic field, which requires a specialized magnet as well as receiver coils to detect the nuclide signals.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS1)

[...] MRS generally refers to maintaining the spectral information in the magnetic signals from the nuclides, which permits the determination of the molecules or metabolites containing a given nuclide. The collection of this additional information in MRS along with the fact that metabolites are generally at low concentration results in the MRS experiment having a low SNR. These combined effects make any images collected with MRS very poor in spatial and temporal resolution. MRI and MRS must be conducted in a strong homogeneous magnetic field, which requires a specialized magnet as well as receiver coils to detect the nuclide signals.

Anmerkungen

Fast identisch, dennoch ohne Kennzeichnung einer Übernahme oder Angabe einer Quelle.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


Quellen

Quelle Autor Titel Verlag Jahr Lit.-V. FN
Sih/Borges et al 2003 Joerg Borges, Florian T. Tegtmeier, Nestor Torio Padron, Matthias C. Mueller, Eva M. Lang, G. Bjoern Stark Chorioallantoic Membrane Angiogenesis Model for Tissue Engineering: A New Twist on a Classic Model 2003 ja nein
Sih/Eschenhagen und Zimmermann 2005 Thomas Eschenhagen, Wolfram H. Zimmermann Engineering Myocardial Tissue 2005 ja nein
Sih/Giaever und Keese 1983 Ivar Giaever, Charles R. Keese Behavior of cells at fluid interfaces (protein adsorption at interfaces/fluorocarbon fluid substrates/cellular growth patterns) 1983 ja nein


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