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A new insight on direct actions of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in the myocardium

von Dr. Ana Catarina Ribeiro Carrão

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[1.] Arc/Fragment 014 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 22:06:17 Schumann
Arc, BauernOpfer, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 14, Zeilen: 1-14, 17-29
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2792, Zeilen: 2792: left col. 32-35; right col. 17-25.39-43.48-55; 2793: left col. 13-22 - right col. 1-9
[Further understanding of the biological and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of] recombinant protein for study11, 12.

Southern blot analysis of genomic human DNA showed that G-CSF is encoded by a single gene11, 13, and further studies determined that this single gene is located on chromosome 17q11-2214, 15. The genomic structure of the human G-CSF gene was determined by Nagata et al13, revealing that G-CSF gene consists of 5 exons spread over a locus of approximately 2.3 kb (Fig. 1). At the 5’-terminus of the second intron, two donor splice sequences are present in the tandem, only 9 bp apart. The localization of human G-CSF on chromosome 17 differs from that of several other human hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-4 and IL-5, which are clustered on the long arm of the chromosome 516. Following the description of the cDNA for human G-CSF, the murine G-CSF was cloned by crosshybridization with a human G-CSF cDNA probe. The murine G-CSF gene is highly homologous with the human gene, with 69% nucleic acid sequence homology in both coding and non-coding regions, and a 73% sequence homology in the predicted amino acid sequence of the protein17.[...]

The human G-CSF gene is distantly related to the IL-6 gene. The number, location and size of the introns and exons that comprise these two genes are similar. Additionally, the amino acid sequences of G-CSF and IL-6 share some localized homology. Between amino acid residues 20 to 85 of G-CSF, the positions of 17 residues match with residues located between positions 28 to 91 of the IL-6 molecule, which yields a sequence homology for this region of 26%3. Additionally, the positions of four cysteine residues are precisely conserved between G-CSF and IL-6 in this region of relative homology. The tertiary structure of G-CSF may be quite similar to that of IL-6, particularly if intra-chain disulfide bridges are similarly located within these molecules. Thus, it is possible that the genes encoding G-CSF and IL-6 may have arisen from a gene duplication event after which they have subsequently diverged. There is no linkage of chromosomal localization between G-CSF and IL-6, because human IL-6 is located at chromosome 7p1519.


3. Demetri GD, Griffin JD. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor. Blood. 1991;78:2791-2808.

11. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature. 1986;319:415-418.

12. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, et al. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science. 1986;232:61-65.

13. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Yamazaki T. The chromosomal gene structure and two mRNAs for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Embo J. 1986;5:575-581.

14. Le Beau MM, Lemons RS, Carrino JJ, Pettenati MJ, Souza LM, Diaz MO, Rowley JD. Chromosomal localization of the human G-CSF gene to 17q11 proximal to the breakpoint of the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 1987;1:795-799.

15. Simmers RN, Webber LM, Shannon MF, Garson OM, Wong G, Vadas MA, Sutherland GR. Localization of the G-CSF gene on chromosome 17 proximal to the breakpoint in the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 1987;70:330-332.

16. Nicola NA. Hemopoietic cell growth factors and their receptors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:45-77.

17. Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Nagata S. Isolation and characterization of the cDNA for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:7633-7637.

19. Kishimoto T. The biology of interleukin-6. Blood. 1989;74:1-10.

[Page 2792]

Further understanding of the biologic and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of recombinant protein for study. [...]

Southern blot analysis of genomic human DNA showed that human G-CSF is encoded by a single gene,17,18 and further studies determined that this single gene is located on chromosome 17q11-22.20,21 The genomic structure of the human G-CSF gene was determined by Nagata et al.18 The G-CSF gene consists of 5 exons spread over a locus of approximately 2.3 kb. At the 5’-terminus of the second intron, two donor splice sequences are present in tandem, only 9 bp apart. [...]

[...] The localization of human G-CSF on chromosome 17 differs from that of several other human hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-5, which are clustered on the long arm of chromosome 5.22 [...]

Following the description of the cDNA for human G-CSF, the murine G-CSF gene was cloned by crosshybridization with a human G-CSF cDNA probe under low stringency conditions.23 The murine G-CSF gene is highly homologous with the human gene, with 69% nucleic acid sequence homology in both coding and noncoding regions, and a 73% sequence homology in the predicted amino acid sequence of the protein.23

[Page 2793]

The human G-CSF gene is distantly related to the IL-6 gene. The number, location, and size of the introns and exons that comprise these two genes are similar. Additionally, the amino acid sequences of G-CSF and IL-6 share some localized homology. Between amino acid residues 20 to 85 of G-CSF, the positions of 17 residues match with residues located between positions 28 to 91 of the IL-6 molecule, which yields a sequence homology for this region of 26%.26, 27 Additionally, the positions of four cysteine residues are precisely conserved between G-CSF and IL-6 in this region of relative homology. The tertiary structure of G-CSF may be quite similar to that of IL-6, particularly if intrachain disulfide bridges are similarly located within these molecules. Thus, it is possible that the genes encoding G-CSF and IL-6 may have arisen from a gene duplication event from which they have subsequently diverged. There is no linkage of chromosomal localization between G-CSF and IL-6 because the human IL-6 gene is located at chromosome 7p15.28


14. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, Barendt J, Platzer E, Moore MAS, Mertelsmann R, Welte K Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: Effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232:61,1986

17. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M: Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature 319:415,1986

18. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Yamazaki T: The chromosomal gene structure and two mRNAs for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Embo J 5:575,1986

20. Le Beau M, Lemons R, Carrino J, Pettenati M, Souza L, Diaz M, Rowley J: Chromosomal localization of the human G-CSF gene to 17q11 proximal to the breakpoint of the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia 1:795,1987

21. Simmers RN, Webber LM, Shannon MF, Garson OM, Wong G, Vadas MA, Sutherland GR: Localization of the G-CSF gene on chromosome 17 proximal to the breakpoint in the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 70:330, 1987

22. Nicola N: Hemopoietic cell growth factors and their receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 58:45,1989

23. Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Nagata S: Isolation and characterization of the cDNA for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7633,1986

26. Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H, Taga T, Watanabe Y, Matsuda T, Kashiwamura S, Nakajima K, Koyama K, Iwamatsu A, Tsunasawa S, Sakiyama F, Matsui H, Takahara Y, Taniguchi T, Kishimoto T Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature 32473,1986

27. Kishimoto T: The biology of interleukin-6. Blood 74:1, 1989

28. Sutherland GR, Baker E, Callen DF, Hyland VJ, Wong G, Clark S, Jones SS, Eglinton LK, Shannon MF, Lopez AF, Vadas MA Interleukin 4 is at 5q31 and interleukin 6 is at 7p15. Hum Genet 79:335,1988

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The source is only named once, and then only in passing.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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