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A new insight on direct actions of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in the myocardium

von Dr. Ana Catarina Ribeiro Carrão

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[1.] Arc/Fragment 028 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-25 22:24:11 WiseWoman
Arc, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Risau 1997, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan, Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 28, Zeilen: 1-15, legend to fig. 5
Quelle: Risau 1997
Seite(n): 671, Zeilen: 1; left col. 1-12.17-22; legend to fig. 1
Chapter II: Mechanisms of vascular growth

When Leonardo da Vinci first speculated about the heart and the circulatory system, he could only analyse the mechanism of organ formation by analogy. So he suggested that the vasculature developed like a tree from a seed (the heart) by sprouting roots (the liver capillary network) and a trunk with major branches (the aorta and arteries, Fig. 5).

28a diss.png

Fig. 5 – Analogy between the botanic and vascular tree as drawn by Leonardo da Vinci (taken from “The anatomy of man: the cardiovascular system (1508)). The drawing is annotated in his cryptic mirror-writing, for example the big seed of the left plant labelled “core” (heart) is indicated by the arrowhead71.

Although sprouting of vessels is indeed a principal mechanism of the blood vessel formation termed angiogenesis, other mechanisms are now known. Rather than sprouting from the heart, the vascular system is laid down before the heart starts beating. Conversely, adult blood vessels generally form from pre-existing vessels in direct response to tissue demands74.

II.1 Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis

The early vascular plexus forms from the mesoderm by differentiation of angioblasts (vascular endothelial cells that have not yet formed a lumen), which subsequently generate primitive blood vessels. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this process, termed vasculogenesis74, are starting to emerge (Fig. 6).


71. Haghighat A WD, Whalin MK, Cowan DP, Taylor WR. . Granulocyte colonystimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor exacerbate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2007;115:2049-2054.

74. Risau W. Mechanisms of angiogenesis. Nature. 1997;386:671-674.

Mechanisms of angiogenesis

[...]

When Leonardo da Vinci first speculated about the heart and circulatory system (see Nature 380, 9; 1996), he could only analyse the mechanisms of organ formation by analogy, so he suggested that the vasculature developed like a tree from a seed (the heart) by sprouting roots (the liver capillary meshwork) and a trunk with major branches (the aorta and arteries) (Fig. 1). Although sprouting of blood vessels is indeed a principal mechanism of blood vessel formation, termed angiogenesis, other mechanisms are now known. Rather than sprouting from the heart, the vascular system is laid down before the heart starts beating. Conversely, adult blood vessels generally form from pre-existing vessels in direct response to tissue demands.

[...]

Vasculogenesis

The early vascular plexus forms from mesoderm by differentiation of angioblasts (vascular endothelial cells that have not yet formed a lumen), which subsequently generate primitive blood vessels. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this process, termed vasculogenesis1, are emerging (Fig. 2).

28a source.png

Figure 1 Analogy between the botanic and the vascular tree as drawn by Leonardo da Vinci (taken from ‘the anatomy of man: the cardiovascular system’ (ca. 1508)). The drawing is annotated by notes in his trademark cryptic mirror-writing, for example the big seed of the left plant labelled ‘core’ (heart) is indicated by the arrowhead.


1. Risau, W. & Flamme, I. Vasculogenesis. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 11, 73-91 (1995).

Anmerkungen

Although the source is given (in passing) nothing has been marked as a citation. The copied text is mostly taken verbatim. Figure 5 and its legend are also taken from Risau (1997), this time without the source being named.

The named source Haghighat et al. (2007) does not contain any of the copied material.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), WiseWoman


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