The most distinctive feature of the mammalian central nervous system is its ability to adapt to the environment and to improve its performance over time and experience. [An important basis for this peculiar property is the plastic nature of the synapses, i.e. the capacity to change their signaling strength, both in short and long term, in response to specific patterns of synaptic activity.] The neural changes evoked by the stimuli can persist even for very long times, virtually for the whole life of the individual. This neural plasticity represents the basis of higher brain functions such as learning and memory.
Synaptic plasticity and the cellular bases of memory
The major and most distinctive feature of the nervous system is the astonishing ability to adapt to the environment and to improve its performance over time and experience. [This peculiar property, collectively named “plasticity”, has been precisely defined at the end of the XIX century by Santiago Ramon y Cajal as “the property by virtue of which sustained functional changes occur in particular neuronal systems following the administration of appropriate environmental stimuli or the combination of different stimuli”.] Since the neural changes evoked by the stimuli can persist for very long times, virtually for the whole life of the individual, it seems clear that neural plasticity represents the basis of the higher brain functions such as learning and memory [or, conversely, that the built-in property of neural plasticity allows experience to shape both functionally and structurally the nervous system].
Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.
Das von Benfenati eingeschobene Zitat wurde paraphrasiert und geht daher nicht in die Zeilenzählung ein.
Implicit memory refers to information storage to perform various reflexive or perceptual tasks and is recalled unconsciously. The implicit memory is more robust and may last for all our life even in the absence of further practice (Squire, 2004). Implicit memory involves a heterogeneous collection of memory functions and types of learned behaviors such as reflexive conditioning, fear conditioning and priming. The explicit memory is concerned with the factual knowledge of persons, things, notions and is recalled by a deliberate and conscious effort.
Explicit memory can be further classified as episodic and semantic memory. Episodic memory allows us to remember personal events and experience, on the other hand semantic memory is a sort of public memory for facts and notions.
Squire LR (2004) Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective. Neurobiol Learn Mem 82:171-177.
The first one refers to information storage to perform various reflexive or perceptual tasks is also referred to as non-declarative or implicit memory because it is recalled unconsciously. [...] Implicit memory is a heterogeneous collection of memory functions and types of learned behaviours such as reflexive learning (sensitization, habituation), classical conditioning, fear conditioning, procedural memory (for skills and habits) and priming [(the recall of words or objects from a previous unconscious exposure to them).]
The second form of memory, called declarative or explicit memory because it is recalled by a deliberate and conscious effort, concerns factual knowledge of persons, things, notions and places. Declarative memory can be further classified as episodic or autobiographic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory allows us to remember personal events and experience and, being a link between what we are and what we have been, gives us the sense of our individuality. On the other hand, semantic memory is a sort of public memory for facts and notions[, be they general or autobiographical (Fig. 4).]
However, while explicit memory fades relatively rapidly in the absence of recall and refreshing, implicit memory is much more robust and may last for all our life even in the absence of further practice (4, 5).
4. Blackemore C. Mechanics of the mind. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1977.
5. Kandel ER, Pittenger C. The past, the future and the biology of memory storage. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1999; 354: 2027-52.
Zwar zusammengeschnitten, doch bleibt das Original unverkennbar. Dennoch ohne jeden Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.