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[1.] Br/Fragment 018 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-05-21 18:17:28 Schumann
Br, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Sajikumar 2005, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 3-13
Quelle: Sajikumar 2005
Seite(n): 21, Zeilen: 9-20
1.3.1. Properties of LTP

As a result of brief high frequency stimulation, the LTP expressed in CA3-CA1 synapse of hippocampal region show some basic properties such as ‘inputspecificity’, ‘co-operativity’, ‘associativity’ and ‘late-associativity’ (Bear and Malenka, 1994; Bliss and Collingridge, 1993; Frey and Morris, 1997, 1998; Malenka and Bear, 2004). LTP is input-specific in general, which means those synapses who receive high frequency stimulation only will express LTP. This property of LTP is consistent with its involvement in memory formation. If the activation of one set of synapses leads to the simultaneous activation of all other synapses, even inactive ones, being potentiated, it would be difficult to activate selectively a particular sets of inputs, as is presumably required for learning and memory (Bliss and Collingridge, 1993).


• Bear MF, Malenka RC (1994) Synaptic plasticity: LTP and LTD. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:38 9[sic]-399.

• Bliss TV, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31-39.

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1997) Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation. Nature 385:533-536.

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1998a) Synaptic tagging: implications for latemaintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 21:181-188.

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1998b) Weak before strong: dissociating synaptic tagging and plasticity-factor accounts for late-LTP. Neuropharmacology 37:545-552.

• Malenka RC and Bear MF (2004) LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches. Neuron 44:5-21.

1.4. Basic properties of LTP and LTD

LTP and LTD at the Schaffer collaterals CA1 synapses share several common properties: like input-specificity, co-operativity, associativity and late-associativity (Bliss and Collingridge, 1993;Bear and Malenka, 1994;Malenka and Bear, 2004). LTP/LTD is input-specific, in the sense that it is restricted to the synapses which receive high-frequency stimulation (HFS) or low-frequency stimulation respectively (LFS) (Kelso and Brown, 1986;Lynch et al., 1977). This feature is consistent with its involvement in memory formation. If activation of one set of synapses led to the activation of all other synapses, even inactive ones-being potentiated or depressed, it would be difficult to selectively enhance particular sets of inputs, as is presumably required for learning and memory (Bliss and Collingridge, 1993).


Bear MF, Malenka RC (1994) Synaptic plasticity: LTP and LTD. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4: 389-399.

Bliss TV, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361: 31-39.

Kelso SR, Brown TH (1986) Differential conditioning of associative synaptic enhancement in hippocampal brain slices. Science 232: 85-87.

Lynch GS, Dunwiddie T, Gribkoff V (1977) Heterosynaptic depression: a postsynaptic correlate of long-term potentiation. Nature 266: 737-739.

Malenka RC, Bear MF (2004) LTP and LTD; An Embarrassment of Riches. Neuron 44: 5-21.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Br/Fragment 018 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-05-21 18:17:36 Schumann
Br, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Sajikumar 2005, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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This selective enhancement of conjointly activated synaptic inputs is often considered as a cellular analog correlate of associative or classical conditioning. Otherways, associativity is expected in any network of neurons that links one set information with another. ‘Late-associativity’ is a novel property of LTP, which describes intersynaptic interventions within a time frame of few minutes to few hours (Frey and Morris, 1997, 1998a, 1998b). More clearly, a weak protein synthesis-independent early-LTP in one synaptic input can be [transformed into a late, protein synthesis-dependent form, if a protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP is induced in the second synaptic input preceded by the weak events in the first synaptic input (“Weak before strong”) within a specific time frame (Frey and Morris, 1998a, 1998b; Frey , 2001 ; Frey and Frey, 2008; Kauderer and Kandel, 2000; Sajikumar and Frey, 2004a).]

• Frey U, Frey S, Schollmeier F, Krug M (1995) Influence of actinomycin D, a RNA synthesis inhibitor, on long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. J Physiol 490:703-711

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1997) Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation. Nature 385:533-536.

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1998a) Synaptic tagging: implications for late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 21:181-188.

• Frey U, Morris RGM (1998b) Weak before strong: dissociating synaptic tagging and plasticity-factor accounts for late-LTP. Neuropharmacology 37:545-552.

• Frey S, Bergado-Rosado J, Seidenbecher T, Pape HC, Frey JU (2001) Reinforcement of early long-term potentiation (early-LTP) in dentate gyrus by stimulation of the basolateral amygdala: heterosynaptic induction mechanisms of late-LTP. J Neurosci 21:3697-3703.

• Kauderer BS, Kandel ER (2000) Capture of a protein synthesis-dependent component of long-term depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.97:13342-7.

• Sajikumar S, Frey JU (2004) Resetting of synaptic tags is time-and activity-dependent in rat hippocampal CA1 in vitro. Neuroscience 129:503-507.

• Sajikumar S, Frey JU (2004) Late-associativity, synaptic tagging, and the role of dopamine during LTP and LTD. Neurobiol Learn Mem 82:12-25.

This selective enhancement /depression of conjointly activated sets of synaptic inputs is often considered as a cellular analog of associative or classical conditioning. More generally, associativity is expected in any network of neurons that links one set of information with another.

Late-associativity is a novel property of LTP/LTD. It describes intersynaptic interventions within a time frame of few minutes to few hours (Frey and Morris, 1997;Frey and Morris, 1998a;Frey and Morris, 1998b;Morris and Frey, 1999). More clearly, a weak protein synthesis independent early-LTP/-LTD in one synaptic input can be transformed into a late, protein synthesis-dependent form, if a protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP/-LTD is induced in the second synaptic input preceded by the weak events in the first synaptic input (weak before strong) within a specific time frame (Frey and Morris, 1998b;Kauderer and Kandel, 2000).


Frey U, Morris RG (1997) Synaptic tagging and long-term potentiation. Nature 385: 533-536.

Frey U, Morris RG (1998a) Synaptic tagging: implications for late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 21: 181-188.

Frey U, Morris RG (1998b) Weak before strong: dissociating synaptic tagging and plasticity-factor accounts of late-LTP. Neuropharmacology 37: 545-552.

Kauderer BS, Kandel ER (2000) Capture of a protein synthesis-dependent component of long-term depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 13342-13347.

Morris RG, Frey U (1999) Tagging the hebb synapse: reply. Trends Neurosci 22: 256.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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