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The effects of somatostatin on spreading depression in rat neocortical tissues

von Dr. Cornelia Larissa Granz

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Clg/Fragment 023 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-11 22:25:40 Schumann
Clg, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Vezzani and Hoyer 1999

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 8-14
Quelle: Vezzani and Hoyer 1999
Seite(n): 3767, Zeilen: r.col: 21-31
Regional differences in the concentration of somatostatin and its receptors have been found in the CNS, with the highest levels in the hypothalamus, cortex and limbic areas (Epelbaum, 1986; Thoss et al., 1997). The demonstration of a neuronal, Ca2+- and tetrodotoxindependent release of somatostatin (Iversen et al., 1978; Lee and Iversen 1981; Vezzani et al., 1993), its coexistence in neurons with classical neurotransmitters (Hokfelt, 1991) and its ability to affect neuronal activity and ionic currents (Scharfman, 1993) suggest that this neuropeptide has neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator activities in the CNS. Regional differences in the concentration of SRIF and its receptors have been found in the CNS, with the highest levels in the hypothalamus, cortex and limbic areas (Epelbaum, 1986; Thoss et al, 1995, 1996a,b, 1997).

The demonstration of a neuronal, Ca2+- and tetrodotoxindependent release of SRIF (Iversen et al., 1978; Lee & Iversen, 1981; Arancibia et al., 1984; Vezzani et al., 1992, 1993), its coexistence in neurons with classical neurotransmitters (Epelbaum, 1986; Hokfelt, 1991) and its ability to affect neuronal activity and ionic currents (see Scharfman, 1993) suggest that this neuropeptide has neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator activities in the CNS.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given here.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Clg/Fragment 023 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-11 22:19:41 Schumann
BauernOpfer, Clg, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Vezzani and Hoyer 1999

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 22-31
Quelle: Vezzani and Hoyer 1999
Seite(n): 3768, 3773, Zeilen: 3768: l.col: 3-16; 3773: r.col: 13-19
1. The peptide is preferentially released during high-frequency neuronal activities (Bartfai et al., 1988; Hokfelt 1991; Vezzani et al., 1993). 2. Marked changes in the expression of somatostatin mRNA, the levels of the peptide and its receptors occur after experimentally induced epileptiform burst discharges (Pitkanen et al., 1986; Sloviter 1987; Marksteiner and Sperk 1988; Pérez et al., 1995; Piwko et al., 1996; Schwarzer et al., 1996) and in human epileptic tissue obtained during epilepsy surgery (Perlin et al., 1987; Nagaki et al., 1988; de Lanerolle et al.,. 1989; Deutch et al., 1991; Spencer and Spencer 1994). 3. Intracerebral injections of somatostatin affect seizures and epileptogenesis in experimental animals (Perlin et al., 1987; Mazarati and Telegdy 1992; Monno et al., 1993; Piwko et al., 1996). The data indicate association between somatostatin and epilepsy suggest that peptidergic systems may be an interesting target for pharmacological at[tempts to control pathological hyperactivity in neurons, pointing out new directions for the development of anticonvulsant treatments (Vezzani and Hoyer, 1999).] (i) The peptide is preferentially released from neurons under conditions of elevated activity (i.e. bursting or highfrequency neuronal activation, Bartfai et al., 1988; Hokfelt, 1991; Vezzani et al., 1993), e.g. during seizures. (ii) Marked changes in the expression of SRIF mRNA, the levels of the peptide and its receptors occur after experimentally induced seizures (Pitkanen et al., 1986; Sloviter, 1987; Marksteiner & Sperk, 1988; Perez et al., 1995; Piwko et al., 1996; for review see Schwarzer et al., 1996) and in human epileptic tissue (Perlin et al., 1987; Nagaki et al., 1988; de Lanerolle et al., 1989; Deutch et al., 1991; Spencer & Spencer, 1994). (iii) Intracerebral injections of SRIF, its analogues or SRIF-specific antibodies affect seizures and epileptogenesis in rats (Perlin et al., 1987; Vezzani et al., 1991; Mazarati & Telegdy, 1992; Monno et al., 1993; Piwko et al., 1996).

[page 3773]

Finally, although pharmacological evidence is still scarce because we lacked highly selective SRIF receptor ligands (Hoyer et al., 1995b; Humphrey et al., 1998) that only recently became available (Rohrer et al., 1998), it suggests that peptidergic systems may be an interesting target for pharmacological attempts to control pathological hyperactivity in neurons, pointing out new directions for the development of anticonvulsant treatments.

Anmerkungen

The source is given in the end, but as many other references are given in the here documented passage, the reader would never guess that the entire passage is taken from that source.

Also: quotations are not marked as such.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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