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Acute effects of garlic extract on spreading depression and synaptic activity in rat brain slices

von Dr. Claudia Marschollek

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[1.] Clm/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 17:34:10 Singulus
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 1-7
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 7, Zeilen: 19ff
There are evidences to suggest that CSD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that CSD is involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a CSD wave in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in patients suffering from migraine attacks (Hadjikhani et al. 2001). There is sufficient evidence to admit the SD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that SD is critically involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a SD-like phenomenon in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in migrainous patients (Hadjikhani et al. 2001).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[2.] Clm/Fragment 017 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-08 21:25:48 Singulus
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 8-24
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 8, 9, Zeilen: 8:7-8; 9:4-19
The designation migraine with aura denotes the syndrome of headache associated with characteristic sensory, motor, or visual symptoms, usually gradually developed over 5–20 min and lasting less than 60 min. Direct alterations of electrical activity of cortical neurons by the locally spreading wave can lead to clinical symptoms (e.g. the aura phase of migraine). The most common symptoms in aura phase are visual arising from dysfunction of occipital lobe neurons. The excitatory neurological symptoms, e.g., flashing lights are usually followed by suppressive ones, e.g., scotoma or hemianopia in this phase. Magnetoencephalographic studies in human noted that the magnetic signals were seen in migraineous patients but not in patients suffering from other forms of headache or normal controls. Three distinctive signal patterns; suppression of spontaneous cortical activity, slow field changes and large-amplitude waves, were observed strictly in migraine patients. In some migraine patients, magnetic signals were also recorded between attacks. The same magnetic fields appeared during the propagation of CSD in the cortex of anesthetized animals. High-field functional MRI was used to detect blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes during visual aura in three migraineurs. A focal increase in BOLD signals developed first in extrastriate cortex and spread at the velocity of 3.5 ± 1.1 mm/min over occipital cortex. These initial BOLD features were consistent with scintillations and paralleled by decreases in the stimulus-driven MR [oscillations.] [page 8]

Direct alterations of electrical activity of cortical neurons by the locally spreading wave can lead to clinical symptoms (e.g. the aura phase of migraine).

[page 9]

The designation migraine with aura denotes the syndrome of headache associated with characteristic sensory, motor, or visual symptoms, usually gradually developed over 5–20 min and lasting less than 60 min. The most common symptoms in aura phase are visual arising from dysfunction of occipital lobe neurons. The positive (stimulative) neurological symptoms, e.g., flashing lights are usually followed by negative (suppressive) ones, e.g., scotoma or hemianopia in this phase. Magnetoencephalographic studies in human revealed that the magnetic signals were seen in migraine patients but not in patients suffering from other forms of headache or normal controls. Three distinctive signal patterns; suppression of spontaneous cortical activity, slow field changes and large-amplitude waves, were observed strictly in migraine patients. In some migraine patients, magnetic signals were also recorded between attacks. The same magnetic fields appeared during the propagation of SD in the cortex of anesthetized animals. High-field functional MRI was used to detect blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes during visual aura in three migraineurs. A focal increase in BOLD signals developed first in extrastriate cortex and spread at the velocity of 3.5 ± 1.1 mm/min over occipital cortex. These initial BOLD features were consistent with scintillations and paralleled by decreases in the stimulus-driven MR oscillations.

Anmerkungen

No source given, nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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