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Acute effects of garlic extract on spreading depression and synaptic activity in rat brain slices

von Dr. Claudia Marschollek

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[1.] Clm/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-08 10:08:34 Hindemith
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 1-8
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 9, Zeilen: 19-27
Increasing in BOLD signals was followed by a decrease in the mean signal. This phase appeared to correspond to the localized scotoma and MR stimulus-induced response remained suppressed. Within 15 ± 3 min, both BOLD signals and MR stimulus-induced response recovered. During periods with no visual stimulation, but while the subject was experiencing scintillations, BOLD signal followed the retinotopic progression of the visual percept. Spreading BOLD signal changes as neocortical SD did not cross prominent sulci (Hadjikhani et al., 2001). Recent investigations provide early insights into mechanisms that lead to trigeminovascular activation.

Hadjikhani N, Sanchez Del Rio M, Wu O, Schwartz D, Bukker D, Fischt B, Kwong KK, Cutrer FM, Rosen BR, Tootell RB, Sorensen AG, Moskowitz MA. Mechanisms of migraine aura revealed by functional MRI in human visual cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2001;98:4687 4692.

Increasing in BOLD signals was followed by a decrease in the mean signal. This phase appeared to correspond to the localized scotoma and MR stimulus-induced response remained suppressed. Within 15 ± 3 min, both BOLD signals and MR stimulus-induced response recovered. During periods with no visual stimulation, but while the subject was experiencing scintillations, BOLD signal followed the retinotopic progression of the visual percept. Spreading BOLD signal changes as neocortical SD did not cross prominent sulci.

Recent investigations provide early insights into mechanisms that lead to trigeminovascular activation.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. A reference not appearing in the original text has been added.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Clm/Fragment 018 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 18:30:36 Singulus
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Gorji 2001, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 9-18
Quelle: Gorji 2001
Seite(n): 42, 43, Zeilen: 42: r.col: last lines; 43: l.col: 2ff
CSD is also a well-known phenomenon in experimental epilepsy. CSD can be elicited in susceptible area by a single discharge of an epileptic focus. Epilepsy and migraine are both disorders characterized by transient paroxysmal neurological dysfunction, usually with a normal neurological examination between attacks. A number of syndromes in which migraine and epilepsy are related have been described. Headaches are observed quite frequently following epileptic attacks and seizures provoke a syndrome similar to the headache phase of migraine in 50% of epileptics. A number of anticonvulsive drugs have the capacity to stabilize migraine and some anti-migraine drugs increase the epilepsy threshold. It was reported that combination therapy with anticonvulsant and anti-migraine drugs in some intractable epileptics improves seizure control (Gorji, 2001). Migraine and epilepsy are both disorders characterized by transient paroxysmal neurological dysfunction, usually with a normal neurological examination between attacks. [...] A number of syndromes in which migraine and epilepsy are related have been described [108,249,366]. Headaches are observed quite frequently following epileptic attacks and seizures provoke a syndrome similar to the headache phase of migraine in 50% of epileptics [376]. A number of anticonvulsive drugs have the capacity to stabilize migraine and some anti-migraine drugs increase the epilepsy threshold. [...] It was reported that combination therapy with anticonvulsant and anti-migraine drugs in some intractable epileptics improves seizure control [448].

[...]

SD is a well-known phenomenon in experimental epilepsy.

[page 43]

SD can be elicited in susceptible area by a single discharge of an epileptic focus (spike triggered SD).


[...]

Anmerkungen

The source is given, but the literal quotations are not marked as such and it is not clear for the reader that more than the last sentence is taken from Gorji (2001).

Note that also passages further up on this page and on the previous page are parallel to Gorji (2001), the parallel is closer, however, with the source Haarmann (2009), which therefore has been used for the documentation.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[3.] Clm/Fragment 018 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-10 15:07:46 Hindemith
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Schumann
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 19-24
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 10, Zeilen: 14-19
Consistent with an upstream role for CSD, prolonged application of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses CSD in experimental models as a proposed mechanism of action. In line with clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic medicaments is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of drugs such as topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and propranolol (Gorji, 2001). Consistent with an upstream role for SD, prolonged application of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses SD in rats as a proposed mechanism of action. In line with the growing clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic drugs is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and propranolol on SD.
Anmerkungen

Note: the passage cannot be found in this wording in Gorji (2001).

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Schumann), Hindemith


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