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Acute effects of garlic extract on spreading depression and synaptic activity in rat brain slices

von Dr. Claudia Marschollek

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Clm/Fragment 031 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 18:51:36 Singulus
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Miettinen et al 1997, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 31, Zeilen: 9-11
Quelle: Miettinen et al 1997
Seite(n): 6503, Zeilen: left col. 7-8 - right col. 1-3
COX-2, the inducible form of the enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is induced within hours after SD in cortical neurons by a mechanism dependent on phospholipase A2. DISCUSSION

The major finding of the present study is that COX-2, the inducible form of the enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is induced within hours after SD and transient focal ischemia in perifocal cortical neurons by a mechanism dependent on NMDA-receptors and PLA2.

Anmerkungen

Not marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[2.] Clm/Fragment 031 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-08 21:29:02 Singulus
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Macpherson et al 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 31, Zeilen: 13-24
Quelle: Macpherson et al 2005
Seite(n): 933, Zeilen: right col. 19-40
However it should be noted that some studies point to activation of pain sensing by garlic. Allicin is the active ingredient of garlic that causes a burning sensation through activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Fresh-cut garlic and allicin, one of its constituents, activate TRPA1 and TRPV1, two noxious thermo TRPs found in pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth and tongue. Activation by garlic and allicin is specific to neurons expressing these channels; no other populations of trigeminal ganglia neurons are activated by these stimuli. Among the chemical constituents of garlic extracts, allicin is by far the most potent activator of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Furthermore, the activity of allicin, given its concentration in garlic, is sufficient to explain all of garlic extract’s activity on these thermo TRPs. Extracts of baked garlic (which differ from fresh extracts primarily in their lack of allicin) are unable to activate thermo TRPs. Allicin and other garlic constituents are expected to stimulate olfactory and gustatory neurons as well; however, the burning sensation that fresh garlic can produce must act via the trigeminal system (Macpherson et al., 2005).

Macpherson LJ, Geierstanger BH, Viswanath V, Bandell M, Eid SR, Hwang S, Patapoutian A. The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin. Curr Biol. 2005;15:929-34.

Here, we show that fresh-cut garlic and allicin, one of its constituents, activate TRPA1 and TRPV1, two noxious thermoTRPs found in pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth and tongue. Activation by garlic and allicin is specific to neurons expressing these channels; no other populations of DRG or trigeminal ganglia neurons are activated by these stimuli. Among the chemical constituents of garlic extracts, allicin is by far the most potent activator of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Furthermore, the activity of allicin, given its concentration in garlic, is sufficient to explain all of garlic extract’s activity on these thermoTRPs. Finally, extracts of baked garlic (which differ from fresh extracts primarily in their lack of allicin) are unable to activate thermoTRPs. Allicin and other garlic components are expected to activate olfactory and gustatory neurons as well; however, the burning sensation that fresh garlic can cause must work through the trigeminal system. Therefore, we conclude that in garlic, allicin is the active ingredient that causes a burning sensation through activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1.
Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed this whole passage which marks the end of the part "Discussion" of Clm's Thesis can be found word for word as the "Conclusion" of Macpherson et al (2005).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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