Fandom

VroniPlag Wiki

Clm/Fragmente/Gesichtet g

< Clm

31.377Seiten in
diesem Wiki
Seite hinzufügen
Diskussion0 Teilen

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.

27 gesichtete, geschützte Fragmente: Plagiat

[1.] Clm/Fragment 006 08 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:13 Singulus
Erstellt: 23. April 2014, 15:26 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Lasinski 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 8, 9-11, 14-20
Quelle: Lasinski 2005
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
The history of garlic

Garlic has been used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Although sometimes maligned, garlic has had an amazing array of nutritional and medicinal applications throughout human history, and it is still improving the health of many today. Some of the earliest references to medicinal effect of garlic were found in Avesta, a collection of Zoroastrian holy writing that was probably compiled during the sixth century BC (Darmestetar, 1898). Archaeologists have discovered clay sculptures of garlic bulbs and paintings of garlic dating about 3200 B.C. in Egyptian tombs in El Mahasna. A recently discovered Egyptian papyrus dating from 1,500 B.C. recommends garlic as a cure all for over 22 common ailments, including lack of stamina, heart disease and tumors, and it’s been said the Egyptians fed garlic to the slaves building the pyramids to increase their strength (Lasinski, 2005). In ancient Greece and Rome, garlic enjoyed a variety of uses, from repelling scorpions to treating dog bites and bladder infections to curing leprosy and asthma.


Lasiniski K. The History of Garlic: Nature's Ancient Superfood, http://www.googobits.com/articles/p0-1167-the-history-of-garlic-natures-ancientsuperfood. html ((accessed Jan 25, 2010).

The History of Garlic: Nature's Ancient Superfood

by Kirsten Lasinski June 28, 2005

Although sometimes maligned, garlic has had an amazing array of nutritional and medicinal applications throughout human history, and it’s still improving the health of many today. So grab a clove and enjoy the many benefits of nature’s oldest superfood: garlic.

[...]

Garlic in Antiquity

Unlike that mysterious Tupperware lurking at the back of your fridge, garlic has been employed in a variety of functions for millennia. Archeologists have discovered clay sculptures of garlic bulbs and paintings of garlic dating about 3200 B.C. in Egyptian tombs in El Mahasna. A recently discovered Egyptian papyrus dating from 1,500 B.C. recommends garlic as a cure all for over 22 common ailments, including lack of stamina, heart disease and tumors, and it’s been said the Egyptians fed garlic to the slaves building the pyramids to increase their strength. Garlic proved itself worthy to peasant and royalty alike as Tutankhamen (Egypt’s youngest pharaoh) was sent into the afterlife with garlic at his side.

In ancient Greece and Rome, garlic enjoyed a variety of uses, from repelling scorpions to treating dog bites and bladder infections to curing leprosy and asthma.

Anmerkungen

Although the source is named somewhere in between, nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Clm/Fragment 007 04 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:24 Singulus
Erstellt: 23. April 2014, 15:44 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Lasinski 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 4-8
Quelle: Lasinski 2005
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
In the middle Ages, garlic was thought to combat the plague and was hung in braided strands across the entrances of houses to prevent evil spirits from entering (Lasinski, 2005).

In seventeenth century England, garlic was considered unfit for ladies and anyone who wished to court them, and it was avoided in America even early into the 20th century.


Lasiniski K. The History of Garlic: Nature's Ancient Superfood, http://www.googobits.com/articles/p0-1167-the-history-of-garlic-natures-ancientsuperfood. html ((accessed Jan 25, 2010).

In the Middle Ages garlic was thought to combat the plague and was hung in braided strands across the entrances of houses to prevent evil spirits from entering. While modern day experience cannot confirm garlic’s effect on evil spirits, it has been proven that garlic, at the least, will prevent a goodnight kiss at the end of a date.

For many years, garlic was shunned by Western cultures such as Britain and America because of the residual stench it left behind. In seventeenth century England, garlic was considered unfit for ladies and anyone who wished to court them, and it was avoided in America even early into the 20th century, when famous chefs would substitute onion for it in recipes.

Anmerkungen

The author of the original source is named once (again), but nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[3.] Clm/Fragment 008 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:30 Singulus
Erstellt: 7. May 2014, 20:24 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wikipedia Garlic 2010

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 3-9
Quelle: Wikipedia Garlic 2010
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
There are different types or subspecies of garlic, most notably hard-neck garlic and soft-neck garlic. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hard-neck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates; soft-neck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator. The leaves, and flowers on the head are also edible, and being milder in flavour than the bulbs [sic]. The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form. The leaves, and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible, and being milder in flavor than the bulbs,[2] they are most often consumed while immature and still tender. [...] The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form.

There are different types or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type as garlic can be day-length sensitive. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates; softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator.[11][12]


2. "AllergyNet — Allergy Advisor Find". Allallergy.net. Retrieved 2010-04-14.

11. "Farmers Forum — It probably came from Gilroy Warren Reporter". NJ.com. Retrieved 2009-12-06.

12. "The Medicinal Uses of Garlic Natural Holistic Health Blog". Natural-holistic-health.com. 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2009-12-06.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note also, that the shortening of the original text has led to a grammatical error.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[4.] Clm/Fragment 008 10 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:10 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 09:45 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Plants for a future 2008, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 10-13
Quelle: Plants for a future 2008
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can not grow in the shade.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note that the somewhat aprupt expression "and are pollinated by Bees, insects" is taken verbatim from the source.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[5.] Clm/Fragment 008 15 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:45 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 10:00 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Plantcare 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 15-17
Quelle: Plantcare 2009
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
August or early fall is considered the best time for sowing cloves, as this allows the roots time to develop before the first frost sets in. New leaves will appear before winter and in the spring. Plants will rapidly reach a height of 18 inches. August or early fall is considered the best time for sowing cloves, as this allows the roots time to develop before the first frost sets in.

[...] New leaves will appear before winter and in the spring, plants will rapidly reach a height of 18 inches.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[6.] Clm/Fragment 008 21 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:20 Singulus
Erstellt: 23. April 2014, 21:57 (Graf Isolan)
Banerjee and Maulik 2002, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 21-25
Quelle: Banerjee and Maulik 2002
Seite(n): 2, Zeilen: left col. 28-37
Allicin (allyl 2-propenethiosulfineate or diallyl thiosulfinate) is the principal bioactive compound present in aqueous garlic extract or raw garlic homogenate. When garlic is chopped or crushed, allinase enzyme, present in garlic, is activated and acts on alliin (present in intact garlic) to produce allicin. Other main compounds present in garlic homogenate are 1-propenyl allyl thiosulfonate, allyl methyl thiosulfonate, [(E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide (ajoene), and γ-L-glutamyl-S-alkyl-L-cysteine.] Allicin (allyl 2-propenethiosulfinate or diallyl thiosulfinate) is thought to be the principal bioactive compound present in aqueous garlic extract or raw garlic homogenate. When garlic is chopped or crushed, allinase enzyme, present in garlic, is activated and acts on alliin (present in intact garlic) to produce allicin. Other important sulfur containing compounds presents in garlic homogenate are allyl methyl thiosulfonate, 1-propenyl allyl thiosulfonate and γ-L-glutamyl-S-alkyl-L-cysteine.
Anmerkungen

Not marked as citation. Note the changed order of the "sulfur containing compounds".

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[7.] Clm/Fragment 009 02 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 22:09 Schumann
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 21:43 (Hindemith)
Banerjee and Maulik 2002, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 9, Zeilen: 2-11
Quelle: Banerjee and Maulik 2002
Seite(n): 2, Zeilen: l.col: 37ff
The adenosine concentration increases several-fold as the homogenate is incubated at room temperature for several hours.

Another widely studied garlic preparation is aged garlic extract. Sliced raw garlic stored in 15-20% ethanol for more than 1.5 years is refereed to aged garlic extract. This process is supposed to cause considerable loss of allicin and increased activity of certain new compounds. These compounds include S-allylcysteine, S-allylmercaptocysteine, allixin (3- hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-methyl-2-penthyl-4H-pyran-4-one), and selenium which are stable and significantly antioxidant. Medicinally used garlic oil is usually prepared by steam-distillation process. Steam-distilled garlic oil consists of diallyl, allylmethyl, and dimethyl mono to hexa sulfides (Lawson, 1998).

The adenosine concentration increases several-fold as the homogenate is incubated at room temperature. [...]

Another widely studied garlic preparation is aged garlic extract (AGE). Sliced raw garlic stored in 15-20% ethanol for 20 months is refereed to as AGE. This whole process is supposed to cause considerable loss of allicin and increased activity of certain newer compounds, like S-allylcysteine (SAC), S-allylmercaptocysteine, allixin and selenium which are stable, highly bioavailable and significantly antioxidant [5]. [...]

Medicinally used garlic oil is mostly prepared by steam-distillation process. Steam-distilled garlic oil consists of the diallyl (57%), allyl methyl (37%) and dimethyl (6%) mono to hexa sulfides. [...] [1]


1. Lawson LD: Garlic: a review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. In: Phytomedicines of Europe. Chemistry and Biological Activity. Series 691 (Edited by: Lawson LD & Bauer R) American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1998, 176-209

5. Borek C: Antioxidant health effect of aged garlic extract. J Nutr 2001, 131:1010S-1015S

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[8.] Clm/Fragment 009 12 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:33 Singulus
Erstellt: 7. May 2014, 20:44 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Garlic 2010

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 9, Zeilen: 12-14
Quelle: Wikipedia Garlic 2010
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
Allyl methyl sulfide cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin, where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) cannot be digested and is passed into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the skin, where it is excreted. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[9.] Clm/Fragment 014 14 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 21:10 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 18:11 (Hindemith)
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 14, Zeilen: 14-20
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 7, Zeilen: 1-6
CSD is an "all-or-none" process and spreads in the manner of a wave through gray matter. CSD appears first at the stimulated site and propagate in all directions at the velocity of 2–3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression. An important characteristic feature of CSD is a propagating negative potential with amplitude of 10–30 mV and duration of more than 30 sec, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive fluctuation of variable amplitude and duration (figure 2). SD is an "all-or-none" type process and propagates in the manner of a wave through gray matter. SD appears first at the stimulated site and spreads out in all directions at the velocity of 2–3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression. A crucial manifestation of SD is a propagating negative potential with amplitude of 10–30 mV and duration of more than 30 sec, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive fluctuation of variable amplitude and duration (Figure 1).
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[10.] Clm/Fragment 014 21 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 21:36 Schumann
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 21:28 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Granz 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 14, Zeilen: 21-25
Quelle: Granz 2009
Seite(n): 6, Zeilen: 5-10
CSD can be initiated by different stimuli and so can be directly studied in experimental investigations. It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit neocortex by Leao [sic] group (Leao [sic], 1944; Fig. 1). However, such stimuli could lead to convulsive activity spreading from the stimulated area and so subsequent authors preferred to [employ direct current (DC) stimuli (Leao [sic] & Morrison, 1945; Ochs, 1962).] SD can be initiated by different stimuli and so can be directly studied in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leao [sic], 1944; Bures, Buresova & Kriva´nek [sic], 1974; Fig. 1). However, such stimuli could lead to convulsive activity spreading from the stimulated area and so subsequent authors preferred to employ direct current (DC) stimuli (Leao [sic] & Morrison, 1945; Ochs, 1962).
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note that the figure 1 of the dissertation shows images of garlic in different shapes.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[11.] Clm/Fragment 015 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:17 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 17:57 (Hindemith)
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 1-11
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 6, Zeilen: 6-16
Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Leao [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of CSD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube and Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, one of the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application to the neuronal tissues (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier investigations (Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001). Changes in extracellular K+ concentration might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson & Sykova, 1998). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been shown to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Bradley et al., 2001). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson and Sykova, 1998).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[12.] Clm/Fragment 015 18 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:21 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 00:02 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, James et al 2001, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 18-24
Quelle: James et al 2001
Seite(n): 267, Zeilen: left col 7-20
During eliciting of CSD the concentration of extracellular K+ rapidly rises (between 40-60mM), causing brief neuronal excitation then depolarization and a period of electrical silence during which DC potential at the brain surface falls. In tandem, [Na+]o and [Cl-]o levels decrease as these ions enter cells. Consequently, water enters cells, the extracellular compartment is reduced, and cells swell. Ca2+ ions also move inwards, but slightly later than the outward movement of K+, suggesting that Ca2+ movements follow K+ fluxes. Additional negative ion species move outwards to maintain electrical balance, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate probably [being the most important (Somjen et al., 2001).]

Somjen GG. Mechanisms of spreading depression and hypoxic spreading depression-like depolarization. Physiol Rev.; 2001;81:1065-96.

During CSD initiation the concentration of extracellular K+, [K+]o, rapidly rises, causing brief neuronal excitation then depolarization and a period of electrical silence during which the direct current (DC) potential at the brain surface falls. In tandem, [Na+]o and [Cl-]o levels decrease as these ions enter cells. Consequently, water enters cells, the extracellular space is reduced, and cells swellb. Ca2+ ions also move inwards, but slightly later than the outward movement of K+, suggesting that Ca2+ movements follow K+ fluxes. Additional negative ion species move outwards to maintain electrical balance, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate probably being the most importantc.

b Nicholson, C. and Kraig, R.P. (1981) The Application of Ion-Selective Microelectrodes (Zeuthen, T., ed.), pp. 217–238, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press

c Szerb, J.C. (1991) Glutamate release and spreading depression in the fascia dentata in response to microdialysis with high K+: role of glia. Brain Res. 542, 259–265

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[13.] Clm/Fragment 016 05 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 17:28 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 17:22 (Hindemith)
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 16, Zeilen: figure
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 8, Zeilen: figure
16a diss Clm.png

Figure 2. Vertical propagation of a negative DC-potential wave after injection of KCl in a neocortical slice. Injection of KCl solution (3 M) via a microelectrode elicited spreading depression-like fluctuation during superfusion with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Injecting and recording electrodes arranged as shown. Voltage variations were recorded simultaneously by four electrodes (DC1–DC4) which set apart by 1 mm (Adopted from Gorji et al., 2001).

16a source Clm.png

Figure 1. Vertical propagation of a negative DC-potential wave after injection of KCl in a neocortical slice. Injection of KCl solution (3 M) via a microelectrode elicited spreading depression-like fluctuation during superfusion with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Injecting and recording electrodes arranged as shown. Voltage variations were recorded simultaneously by four electrodes (DC1–DC4) which set apart by 1 mm (Adopted from Gorji et al., 2001).

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note that in Gorji et al. (2001) one finds the lower part of the illustration (without the three drawings of the brain) and a very similar, but not identical figure caption.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[14.] Clm/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 17:34 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 17:27 (Hindemith)
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 1-7
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 7, Zeilen: 19ff
There are evidences to suggest that CSD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that CSD is involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a CSD wave in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in patients suffering from migraine attacks (Hadjikhani et al. 2001). There is sufficient evidence to admit the SD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that SD is critically involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a SD-like phenomenon in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in migrainous patients (Hadjikhani et al. 2001).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[15.] Clm/Fragment 017 08 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:25 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 13:34 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 8-24
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 8, 9, Zeilen: 8:7-8; 9:4-19
The designation migraine with aura denotes the syndrome of headache associated with characteristic sensory, motor, or visual symptoms, usually gradually developed over 5–20 min and lasting less than 60 min. Direct alterations of electrical activity of cortical neurons by the locally spreading wave can lead to clinical symptoms (e.g. the aura phase of migraine). The most common symptoms in aura phase are visual arising from dysfunction of occipital lobe neurons. The excitatory neurological symptoms, e.g., flashing lights are usually followed by suppressive ones, e.g., scotoma or hemianopia in this phase. Magnetoencephalographic studies in human noted that the magnetic signals were seen in migraineous patients but not in patients suffering from other forms of headache or normal controls. Three distinctive signal patterns; suppression of spontaneous cortical activity, slow field changes and large-amplitude waves, were observed strictly in migraine patients. In some migraine patients, magnetic signals were also recorded between attacks. The same magnetic fields appeared during the propagation of CSD in the cortex of anesthetized animals. High-field functional MRI was used to detect blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes during visual aura in three migraineurs. A focal increase in BOLD signals developed first in extrastriate cortex and spread at the velocity of 3.5 ± 1.1 mm/min over occipital cortex. These initial BOLD features were consistent with scintillations and paralleled by decreases in the stimulus-driven MR [oscillations.] [page 8]

Direct alterations of electrical activity of cortical neurons by the locally spreading wave can lead to clinical symptoms (e.g. the aura phase of migraine).

[page 9]

The designation migraine with aura denotes the syndrome of headache associated with characteristic sensory, motor, or visual symptoms, usually gradually developed over 5–20 min and lasting less than 60 min. The most common symptoms in aura phase are visual arising from dysfunction of occipital lobe neurons. The positive (stimulative) neurological symptoms, e.g., flashing lights are usually followed by negative (suppressive) ones, e.g., scotoma or hemianopia in this phase. Magnetoencephalographic studies in human revealed that the magnetic signals were seen in migraine patients but not in patients suffering from other forms of headache or normal controls. Three distinctive signal patterns; suppression of spontaneous cortical activity, slow field changes and large-amplitude waves, were observed strictly in migraine patients. In some migraine patients, magnetic signals were also recorded between attacks. The same magnetic fields appeared during the propagation of SD in the cortex of anesthetized animals. High-field functional MRI was used to detect blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes during visual aura in three migraineurs. A focal increase in BOLD signals developed first in extrastriate cortex and spread at the velocity of 3.5 ± 1.1 mm/min over occipital cortex. These initial BOLD features were consistent with scintillations and paralleled by decreases in the stimulus-driven MR oscillations.

Anmerkungen

No source given, nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[16.] Clm/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 10:08 Hindemith
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 13:45 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 1-8
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 9, Zeilen: 19-27
Increasing in BOLD signals was followed by a decrease in the mean signal. This phase appeared to correspond to the localized scotoma and MR stimulus-induced response remained suppressed. Within 15 ± 3 min, both BOLD signals and MR stimulus-induced response recovered. During periods with no visual stimulation, but while the subject was experiencing scintillations, BOLD signal followed the retinotopic progression of the visual percept. Spreading BOLD signal changes as neocortical SD did not cross prominent sulci (Hadjikhani et al., 2001). Recent investigations provide early insights into mechanisms that lead to trigeminovascular activation.

Hadjikhani N, Sanchez Del Rio M, Wu O, Schwartz D, Bukker D, Fischt B, Kwong KK, Cutrer FM, Rosen BR, Tootell RB, Sorensen AG, Moskowitz MA. Mechanisms of migraine aura revealed by functional MRI in human visual cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2001;98:4687 4692.

Increasing in BOLD signals was followed by a decrease in the mean signal. This phase appeared to correspond to the localized scotoma and MR stimulus-induced response remained suppressed. Within 15 ± 3 min, both BOLD signals and MR stimulus-induced response recovered. During periods with no visual stimulation, but while the subject was experiencing scintillations, BOLD signal followed the retinotopic progression of the visual percept. Spreading BOLD signal changes as neocortical SD did not cross prominent sulci.

Recent investigations provide early insights into mechanisms that lead to trigeminovascular activation.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. A reference not appearing in the original text has been added.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[17.] Clm/Fragment 018 09 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:30 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 16:09 (Hindemith)
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Gorji 2001, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 9-18
Quelle: Gorji 2001
Seite(n): 42, 43, Zeilen: 42: r.col: last lines; 43: l.col: 2ff
CSD is also a well-known phenomenon in experimental epilepsy. CSD can be elicited in susceptible area by a single discharge of an epileptic focus. Epilepsy and migraine are both disorders characterized by transient paroxysmal neurological dysfunction, usually with a normal neurological examination between attacks. A number of syndromes in which migraine and epilepsy are related have been described. Headaches are observed quite frequently following epileptic attacks and seizures provoke a syndrome similar to the headache phase of migraine in 50% of epileptics. A number of anticonvulsive drugs have the capacity to stabilize migraine and some anti-migraine drugs increase the epilepsy threshold. It was reported that combination therapy with anticonvulsant and anti-migraine drugs in some intractable epileptics improves seizure control (Gorji, 2001). Migraine and epilepsy are both disorders characterized by transient paroxysmal neurological dysfunction, usually with a normal neurological examination between attacks. [...] A number of syndromes in which migraine and epilepsy are related have been described [108,249,366]. Headaches are observed quite frequently following epileptic attacks and seizures provoke a syndrome similar to the headache phase of migraine in 50% of epileptics [376]. A number of anticonvulsive drugs have the capacity to stabilize migraine and some anti-migraine drugs increase the epilepsy threshold. [...] It was reported that combination therapy with anticonvulsant and anti-migraine drugs in some intractable epileptics improves seizure control [448].

[...]

SD is a well-known phenomenon in experimental epilepsy.

[page 43]

SD can be elicited in susceptible area by a single discharge of an epileptic focus (spike triggered SD).


[...]

Anmerkungen

The source is given, but the literal quotations are not marked as such and it is not clear for the reader that more than the last sentence is taken from Gorji (2001).

Note that also passages further up on this page and on the previous page are parallel to Gorji (2001), the parallel is closer, however, with the source Haarmann (2009), which therefore has been used for the documentation.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[18.] Clm/Fragment 018 19 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 10. May 2014, 15:07 Hindemith
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 23:27 (Schumann)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Schumann
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 19-24
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 10, Zeilen: 14-19
Consistent with an upstream role for CSD, prolonged application of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses CSD in experimental models as a proposed mechanism of action. In line with clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic medicaments is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of drugs such as topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and propranolol (Gorji, 2001). Consistent with an upstream role for SD, prolonged application of migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses SD in rats as a proposed mechanism of action. In line with the growing clinical recognition that prolonged administration of prophylactic drugs is important to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy, treatment extension beyond 3–4 weeks also maximizes the inhibitory effects of topiramate, valproate, methysergide, amitriptyline, and propranolol on SD.
Anmerkungen

Note: the passage cannot be found in this wording in Gorji (2001).

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Schumann), Hindemith

[19.] Clm/Fragment 019 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:22 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 09:35 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Gorji 2003, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 19, Zeilen: 3-10
Quelle: Gorji 2003
Seite(n): 331, Zeilen: 5-7, 13-14, 33-40
Naturally occurring substances derived from plants currently have, and will continue to have, a relevant place in drug discovery. The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of headache in Persia can be traced back to the 6th century BC. Despite progress in the development of therapy in recent years, effective and potent drugs are still required for the treatment of headache. The search for new pharmacologically active analgesics obtained from plants has led to the discovery of some clinically useful drugs that, during the past two centuries, have played a major role in the treatment of human diseases. However, most medicinal plants prescribed by Persian physicians remain largely unexamined (Gorji, 2003).

Gorji A. Pharmacological treatment of headache using traditional Persian medicine. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003;24:331-4.

Naturally occurring substances derived from plants currently have, and will continue to have, a relevant place in drug discovery. [...]

The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of headache in Persia can be traced back to the 6th century BC [1]. [...]

Despite progress in the development of therapy in recent years, effective and potent drugs are still required for the treatment of headache. The search for new pharmacologically active analgesics obtained from plants has led to the discovery of some clinically useful drugs that, during the past two centuries, have played a major role in the treatment of human diseases. However, most medicinal plants prescribed by Persian physicians remain [largely unexamined.]

Anmerkungen

Although the original author is named, the passage is not marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[20.] Clm/Fragment 020 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:27 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 15:36 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 20, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 13, Zeilen: 3ff
Material and methods

The experiments were performed on adult rat (200-350g) somatosensory neocortical slices. The brain was removed under deep methohexital anaesthesia and placed in cold (1–4°C) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) pre-equilibrated with 5% CO2 in O2 to give a pH of 7.4. The ACSF contained (in mM): NaCl 124, KCl 4, CaCl2 1.0, NaH2PO4 1.24, MgSO4 1.3, NaHCO3 26 and glucose 10. The somatosensory neocortices were dissected and cut into slices of 500 μm thickness. The slices were incubated in ACSF solution for >1 h at 28°C. After 30-min incubation, CaCl2 was elevated to 2.0 mM. Slices were transferred to an interphase-type experimental chamber and superfused with ACSF at 32°C (1.5–2 ml/min).

Electrophysiological recordings

Extracellular field potentials were recorded with glass microelectrodes (150 mmol/l NaCl; 2–10 MΩ) connected to the amplifier by an Ag/AgCl–KCl bridge in the third and the fifth layers of neocortical tissues. Field potentials were traced by an ink-writer and recorded by a digital oscilloscope.

Induction of neocortical SD

SD was elicited by KCl microinjection. A glass electrode filled with 2 M KCl was fixed in a special holder connected with plastic tube to a pressure injector and the tip inserted into the sixth layer of the neocortical slices. A high-pressure pulse was applied to inject an amount of K+ in the tissue sufficient to induce cortical SD (tip diameter: 2 μm; injection pressure 0.5–1.0 bar applied for 200–300 ms, two injections, 1–3 nl per pulse). Cortical SD-like events were evaluated with respect to their amplitude, duration and velocity rates. SD duration was defined [as the interval between the time of half-maximal voltage shift during onset and recovery of the negative DC potential deflection.]

Material and methods

The experiments were performed on adult rat (250-350g) somatosensory neocortical slices. The brain was removed under deep methohexital anaesthesia and placed in cold (1–4°C) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) pre-equilibrated with 5% CO2 in O2 to give a pH of 7.4. The ACSF contained (in mM): NaCl 124, KCl 4, CaCl2 1.0, NaH2PO4 1.24, MgSO4 1.3, NaHCO3 26 and glucose 10. The somatosensory neocortices were dissected and cut into slices of 500 μm thickness. The slices were incubated in ACSF solution for >1 h at 28°C. After 30-min incubation, CaCl2 was elevated to 2.0 mM. Slices were transferred to an interphase-type experimental chamber and superfused with ACSF at 32°C (1.5–2 ml/min).

Electrophysiological recordings

Extracellular field potentials were recorded with glass microelectrodes (150 mmol/l NaCl; 2–10 M ) connected to the amplifier by an Ag/AgCl–KCl bridge in the third and the fifth layers of neocortical tissues. Field potentials were traced by an ink-writer and recorded by a digital oscilloscope.

Induction of neocortical SD

SD was elicited by KCl microinjection. A glass electrode filled with 2 M KCl was fixed in a special holder connected with plastic tube to a pressure injector and the tip inserted into the sixth layer of the neocortical slices. A high-pressure pulse was applied to inject an amount of K+ in the tissue sufficient to induce cortical SD (tip diameter: 2 μm; injection pressure 0.5–1.0 bar applied for 200–300 ms, two injections, 1–3 nl per pulse). Cortical SD-like events were evaluated with respect to their amplitude, duration and velocity rates. SD duration was defined as the interval between the time of half-maximal voltage shift during onset and recovery of the negative DC potential deflection.

Anmerkungen

Though identical, nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[21.] Clm/Fragment 021 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:36 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 18:21 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 21, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 13, 14, Zeilen: 13: last lines; 14: 1-21
[SD duration was defined] as the interval between the time of half-maximal voltage shift during onset and recovery of the negative DC potential deflection.

Long-term potentiation

Single pulses of electrical stimulation were applied through a bipolar platinum electrode attached to the white matter perpendicular to the recording electrodes. Evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in the third layer of neocortical slices. The fEPSP was elicited by adjusting the intensity of stimulation to 50% of that at which population spikes after fEPSP began to appear. The amplitude of fEPSP 1 ms after the onset was measured for data analysis. In long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments, the cortex was sequentially stimulated once every minute. Ten trains of four pulses (pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V) were repeated at intervals of 10 msec. LTP was operationally defined as the mean change in fEPSP amplitude in response to five stimuli given 30 min after tetanic stimulation compared with the mean response to five test pulses applied immediately before the stimulation. Thus % potentiation = [(posttetanus amplitude of fEPSP/baseline amplitude of fEPSP) 1] 100. Tetanic stimulation was applied 60 min after application of drug.

Experimental protocols

The experimental protocol consisted of four periods as follows: (a) control period, neocortical slices were superfused with ACSF (30 min), tested for spontaneous CSD; (b) KCl injection, induction of SD (CSD1); (c) application of garlic oil (1-500 μl/l) before the second injection of KCl (CSD2); (d) washout of garlic oil with ASCF (45 min, second control period), third injection of KCl (CSD3). Only a single concentration of garlic oil was used in a given slice.

SD duration was defined as the interval between the time of half-maximal voltage shift during onset and recovery of the negative DC potential deflection.

Long-term potentiation

[page 14]

Single pulses of electrical stimulation were applied through a bipolar platinum electrode attached to the white matter perpendicular to the recording electrodes. Evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in the third layer of neocortical slices. The fEPSP was elicited by adjusting the intensity of stimulation to 50% of that at which population spikes after fEPSP began to appear. The amplitude of fEPSP 1 ms after the onset was measured for data analysis. In long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments, the cortex was sequentially stimulated once every minute. Ten trains of four pulses (pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V) were repeated at intervals of 10 msec. LTP was operationally defined as the mean change in fEPSP amplitude in response to five stimuli given 30 min after tetanic stimulation compared with the mean response to five test pulses applied immediately before the stimulation. Thus % potentiation = [(posttetanus amplitude of fEPSP/baseline amplitude of fEPSP) 1] 100. Tetanic stimulation was applied 60 min after application of drug.

Experimental protocols

The experimental protocol consisted of four periods as follows: (a) control period, neocortical slices were superfused with ACSF (30 min), tested for spontaneous SD; (b) KCl injection, induction of SD (SD1); (c) application of D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole (10-200 μM), or the dopamine D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.1-10 μM, 60 min) before the second injection of KCl (SD2); (d) washout of quinpirole or sulpiride with ASCF (45 min, second control period), third injection of KCl (SD3). Only a single concentration of quinpirole or sulpiride was used in a given slice

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[22.] Clm/Fragment 022 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 21:12 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 19:34 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 22, Zeilen: 3-9
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 14, 15, Zeilen: 14:26-30, 15:1-2
Statistical analysis

All data are given as mean ± SEM. The data were statistically analysed using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance test (ANOVA) for repeated measures followed by a Dunn’s test. Significance was established when the probability values were less than 0.05. The investigations were approved by the local ethics committee (Tierversuchsgenehmigung, Bezirksregierung Münster, Deutschland, AZ: 50.0835.1.0, G79/2002).

Statistical analysis

All data are given as mean ± SEM. The data were statistically analysed using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance test (ANOVA) for repeated measures followed by a Holm-Sidak’s test. Significance was established when the probability values were less than 0.05. The investigations were approved

[page 15]

by the local ethics committee (Tierversuchsgenehmigung, Bezirksregierung Münster, Deutschland, AZ: 50.0835.1.0, G79/2002).

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[23.] Clm/Fragment 023 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 10. May 2014, 16:13 Hindemith
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 22:38 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 3-10
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 16, Zeilen: 3-10
Focal application of KCl in the sixth layer of neocortical tissues induced negative DC deflections followed by positive waves (amplitude of 14.7 ± 2.2 mV; duration of 121 ± 6 sec). Negative DC-fluctuations were sometimes preceded by small positive waves. These cortical CSD waves propagated opposite to the direction of the ACSF flow at propagation velocity of 3.3 ± 0.1 mm / min. The effect of five different concentrations of garlic oil (1, 10, 100, 500 μl/l; n = 6 for each concentration) was tested on potassium-evoked CSD in neocortical slices. The ratio between the second and the first DC potential waves (SD2/SD1) was calculated in slices treated with garlic oil. Focal application of KCl in the sixth layer of neocortical tissues induced negative DC deflections followed by positive waves (amplitude of 15.6 ± 1.9 mV; duration of 113 ± 5 sec). Negative DC-fluctuations were sometimes preceded by small positive waves. These cortical SD waves propagated opposite to the direction of the ACSF flow at propagation velocity of 3.1 ± 0.1 mm / min. The effect of five different concentrations of D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole (10, 20, 50, 100, 200 μΜ; n = 6 for each concentration) was tested on potassium-evoked SD in neocortical tissues. The ratio between the second and the first DC potential waves (SD2/SD1) was calculated in control slices and slices treated with quinpirole.
Anmerkungen

Different experiment and different results, but the same text -- and the source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[24.] Clm/Fragment 025 08 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 21:17 Singulus
Erstellt: 9. May 2014, 20:28 (Hindemith)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 25, Zeilen: 8-17
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 20, Zeilen: 9ff
A conditioning tetanic stimulation was delivered to the white substance of neocortical slices followed by pulses with stimulation parameters identical to control values. The evoked fEPSP was stable for at least 30 min before application of tetanic stimulation (less than 10% variation; Fig. 4). Administration of tetanic stimulation produced a rapid and stable enhancement of the amplitude of the fEPSP in all tested preparations (n = 7, 154 ± 11 % control; Fig. 4). LTP lasted as long as the fEPSP were recorded (at least for 90 min). The potentiation rose within 1–2 min and stabilized within 5 minutes after the train of stimulations. Application of garlic oil (500μl/l; n = 12) sixty min before tetanic stimulation significantly suppressed LTP induction in all tested slices (134 ± 6 % baseline, Mann–Whitney Rank Sum test; P ≤ 0.001, Fig. 4). A conditioning tetanic stimulation was delivered to the white substance of neocortical slices followed by pulses with stimulation parameters identical to control values. The evoked fEPSP was stable for at least 30 min before application of tetanic stimulation (less than 10% variation; Fig. 6). Administration of tetanic stimulation produced a rapid and stable enhancement of the amplitude of the fEPSP in all tested preparations (n = 6, 164 ± 12 % control; Fig. 6). LTP lasted as long as the fEPSP were recorded (at least for 90 min). The potentiation rose within 1–2 min and stabilized within 5 minutes after the train of stimulations. Application of sulipride (5 μM; n = 10) sixty min before tetanic stimulation significantly suppressed LTP induction in all tested slices (122 ± 3 % baseline, Mann– Whitney Rank Sum test; P ≤ 0.001, Fig. 6). However, Application of quinpirole (50 μM; n = 10) sixty min before tetanic stimulation did not significantly change the LTP induction in compare with control tissues (147 ± 6 % baseline, Mann–Whitney Rank Sum test; P = 0.08, Fig. 6).
Anmerkungen

The source is not given, although it provided the structure and much of the text for the presentation of different results.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[25.] Clm/Fragment 027 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:49 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 17:00 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haarmann 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 27, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Haarmann 2009
Seite(n): 21-22, Zeilen: 21:3ff - 22:1-4
[B: Tetanic stimulation (Ten trains of four pulses;] pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V) produces a rapid and stable potentiation in the amplitude of the evoked field potentials, calculated as a percentage of baseline mean response amplitude. Closed triangel and closed circles show the evoked fEPSP after application of garlic oil (500μl/l) and control, respectively. Arrow shows the time of tetanic stimulation, 60 min after application of substances. Application of garlic oil significantly inhibited LTP of the evoked field potentials (Mann–Whitney Rank Sum test, P = 0.001), calculated as a percentage of baseline mean response amplitude. [Page 21]

(A) Tetanic stimulation (Ten trains of four pulses; pulse duration 0.1 msec; interpulse interval 50 msec; intensity 5 V)) produces a rapid and stable potentiation in the amplitude of the evoked field potentials, calculated as a percentage of baseline mean response amplitude. Open triangles, open square, and closed circles show the evoked fEPSP after application of sulipride (5 μmol/l), quinpirole

[Page 22]

(50 μmol/l) and control, respectively. Arrow shows the time of tetanic stimulation, 60 min after application of substances. Application of sulipride significantly inhibited LTP of the evoked field potentials (Mann–Whitney Rank Sum test, P = 0.001), calculated as a percentage of baseline mean response amplitude.

Anmerkungen

Not marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[26.] Clm/Fragment 031 09 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 9. May 2014, 18:51 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 19:30 (Graf Isolan)
Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Miettinen et al 1997, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 31, Zeilen: 9-11
Quelle: Miettinen et al 1997
Seite(n): 6503, Zeilen: left col. 7-8 - right col. 1-3
COX-2, the inducible form of the enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is induced within hours after SD in cortical neurons by a mechanism dependent on phospholipase A2. DISCUSSION

The major finding of the present study is that COX-2, the inducible form of the enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is induced within hours after SD and transient focal ischemia in perifocal cortical neurons by a mechanism dependent on NMDA-receptors and PLA2.

Anmerkungen

Not marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[27.] Clm/Fragment 031 13 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 8. May 2014, 21:29 Singulus
Erstellt: 24. April 2014, 18:12 (Graf Isolan)
BauernOpfer, Clm, Fragment, Gesichtet, Macpherson et al 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 31, Zeilen: 13-24
Quelle: Macpherson et al 2005
Seite(n): 933, Zeilen: right col. 19-40
However it should be noted that some studies point to activation of pain sensing by garlic. Allicin is the active ingredient of garlic that causes a burning sensation through activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Fresh-cut garlic and allicin, one of its constituents, activate TRPA1 and TRPV1, two noxious thermo TRPs found in pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth and tongue. Activation by garlic and allicin is specific to neurons expressing these channels; no other populations of trigeminal ganglia neurons are activated by these stimuli. Among the chemical constituents of garlic extracts, allicin is by far the most potent activator of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Furthermore, the activity of allicin, given its concentration in garlic, is sufficient to explain all of garlic extract’s activity on these thermo TRPs. Extracts of baked garlic (which differ from fresh extracts primarily in their lack of allicin) are unable to activate thermo TRPs. Allicin and other garlic constituents are expected to stimulate olfactory and gustatory neurons as well; however, the burning sensation that fresh garlic can produce must act via the trigeminal system (Macpherson et al., 2005).

Macpherson LJ, Geierstanger BH, Viswanath V, Bandell M, Eid SR, Hwang S, Patapoutian A. The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin. Curr Biol. 2005;15:929-34.

Here, we show that fresh-cut garlic and allicin, one of its constituents, activate TRPA1 and TRPV1, two noxious thermoTRPs found in pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth and tongue. Activation by garlic and allicin is specific to neurons expressing these channels; no other populations of DRG or trigeminal ganglia neurons are activated by these stimuli. Among the chemical constituents of garlic extracts, allicin is by far the most potent activator of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Furthermore, the activity of allicin, given its concentration in garlic, is sufficient to explain all of garlic extract’s activity on these thermoTRPs. Finally, extracts of baked garlic (which differ from fresh extracts primarily in their lack of allicin) are unable to activate thermoTRPs. Allicin and other garlic components are expected to activate olfactory and gustatory neurons as well; however, the burning sensation that fresh garlic can cause must work through the trigeminal system. Therefore, we conclude that in garlic, allicin is the active ingredient that causes a burning sensation through activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1.
Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed this whole passage which marks the end of the part "Discussion" of Clm's Thesis can be found word for word as the "Conclusion" of Macpherson et al (2005).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

Auch bei Fandom

Zufälliges Wiki