|4.4.3 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model
Two anthropologists, Kluckholm and Strodtbeck explained cultural similarities and dissimilarities in terms of basic problems which all human societies face.[FN 49] Different ways of dealing with these problems show different cultures. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck identified the following five problem areas:
Relationship to nature – subjugation, harmony and mastery
Societies view themselves as inferior to nature and are not masters of their own destinies; and are not able to influence it. Societies, which view themselves as living in harmony with nature, believe that people must change their behaviour according to nature. Societies that view themselves as able to master nature think in terms of the supremacy of the human race, and think that they can manipulate nature for their own purposes.
Time orientation – past, present and future
Societies, which are orientated towards the past, look for answers in the past. How would their ancestors have solved the problem they are confronted with? Societies, which are present-orientated, consider the immediate effects of their actions; what is the consequence if I do the following? Societies, which are future-orientated, look to the long-term results of events today; what will happen to future generations if we do these things today?
Basic human nature – evil, good, mixed
Societies, which believe that individuals are primarily evil, try to control behaviour by implementing specific codes of conduct. Individuals that do not comply with these rules will be punished. Societies that believe that people are essentially good show trust and generally rely on verbal agreements. Societies that see people as mixed probably also see people as changeable and would focus on means to control behaviour, encourage desired behaviour and discourage undesirable behaviour.
[FN 49: Kluckhohn/Strodtbeck, (1961), p. 20.]
|Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model
The anthropologists Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) explained cultural similarities and differences in terms of basic problems that all human societies face. [...] different societies adopt different solutions. [...]
Consider the various solutions that societies have developed for the five problem areas identified by these two anthropologists.
Relationship to Nature: Subjugation, Harmony, and Mastery
Societies that view themselves as subjugated to nature view life as essentially preordained; people are not masters of their own destinies [...]. Societies that view themselves as living in harmony with nature believe that people must alter their behavior to accommodate nature. Societies that view themselves as able to master nature think in terms of the supremacy of the human race and harnessing the forces of nature.
Time Orientation: Past, Present, and Future
Societies that are oriented toward the past look for solutions in the past: What would our forefathers have done? Societies that are present-oriented consider the immediate effects of their actions: What will happen if I do this? Societies that are future-oriented look to the long-term results of today's events: What will happen to future generations if we do these things today?
Basic Human Nature: Evil or Good, Changeable
Societies that believe that people are primarily evil focus on controlling the behavior of people through specified codes of conduct and sanctions for wrongdoing. Societies that believe that people are essentially good exhibit trust and rely on verbal agreements. Societies that see people as changeable and capable of both good and evil focus on means to modify behavior, encourage desired behavior, and discourage behaviors that are not desirable.