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The influence of national culture on stock option programmes as motivators. The case of managers in Germany

von Prof. Dr. Cornelia Eva Scott

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[1.] Cs/Fragment 086 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:05:27 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, IMO 2007b, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith, WiseWoman
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 86, Zeilen: 1-20
Quelle: IMO 2007b
Seite(n): 1, Zeilen:
[Hierarchy

A hierarchical, differential allocation of fixed roles and of resources is the legitimate, desirable way to regulate] interdependencies. People are socialised to comply with the obligations and rules and sanctioned if they do not. A cultural emphasis on the legitimacy of an unequal distribution of power, roles and resources (social power, authority, humility, wealth).

Egalitarianism

Individuals are portrayed as moral equals, who share basic interests and who are socialized to transcend selfish interests, cooperate voluntarily with others, and show concern for everyone’s welfare (equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, honesty). People are socialized to as autonomous rather than interdependent because autonomous persons have no natural commitment to others (equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, honesty).

Mastery

Groups and individuals should master, control and change the social and natural environment through assertive action in order to further personal or group interests. A cultural emphasis on getting ahead through active self-assertion (ambition, success, daring, competence).

Harmony

The world is accepted as it is. Groups and individuals should fit harmoniously into the natural and social world, avoiding change and self-ascertain to modify them (unity with nature, protecting the environment, world of beauty).

[Table 4.10: Categories of Value According to Schwartz. Source: Schwartz, S. H: (1999) pp. 23.]

Hierarchy

A hierarchical, differential allocation of fixed roles and of resources is the legitimate, desirable way to regulate interdependencies. People are socialised to comply with the obligations and rules and sanctioned if they do not. A cultural emphasis on the legitimacy of an unequal distribution of power, roles and resources (social power, authority, humility, wealth).

Egalitarianism

Individuals are portrayed as moral equals, who share basic interests and who are socialized to transcend selfish interests, cooperate voluntarily with others, and show concern for everyone's welfare (equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, honesty). People are socialized to as autonomous rather than interdependent because autonomous persons have no natural commitment to others (equality, social justice, freedom, responsibility, honesty).

Mastery

Groups and individuals should master, control, and change the social and natural environment through assertive action in order to further personal or group interests. A cultural emphasis on getting ahead through active self-assertion (ambition, success, daring, competence).

Harmony

The world is accepted as it is. Groups and individuals should fit harmoniously into the natural and social world, avoiding change and self-assertion to modify them. (unity with nature, protecting the environment, world of beauty).

[Following: Schwartz, S.H. (1999): A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications for Work, in: Applied Psychology: An International Review, 1999, 48 (1), 23-47

Smith, P.B., Schwartz, S.H.: Values (1997), in: Berry, M.H., et al. (eds.): Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol.3, 2nd. Ed., pp. 77-118, Bosten [sic] 1997]

Anmerkungen

The table 4.10 is identical word-by-word to the table found on the IMO website, which has been in this form at least since 2007. In the given reference ( Schwartz (1999)) one can find the content, even some phrases of the table, but not the entire table compiled in this form. Note also: a) Also the introduction to the table 4.10 is taken from the IMO website: see Fragment_085_03 b) Cs gives for the reference Schwartz 1999 the pages "pp. 23". This indicates that Cs probably never had a look at the source, as the relevant bits are found on page 27 and after. The reference to page 23 probably stems from the reference on the IMO website, which gives the pages 23-47 for the whole paper.

Sichter
WiseWoman

[2.] Cs/Fragment 086 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:05:29 Kybot
BauernOpfer, Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Trompenaars 1998

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan, Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 86, Zeilen: 26-28, 102-104
Quelle: Trompenaars 1998
Seite(n): 1, Zeilen: 25-33
His research database is made up of 15 years of “training program material, and 30[FN 68] companies, with subsidiaries in 50 different countries.” In order to gather comparable samples, a minimum of 100 people with [similar backgrounds and occupations were taken in each of the countries in which the companies operated.]

[FN 68: E.g. AKZO, AMD, AT&T, Baan, Software, Elf Aquitaine, SGS/Thomson, CRA, Glaxo, Heineken, ICI, Applied Materials, Mars, Motorola, Philips, Royal Dutch Airlines KLM; the Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Sematech, TRW, Van Leer, Volvo and Novartis to name a few.]

Apart from the training program material, 30 companies, with departments spanning 50 different countries. have contributed to the research. These include AKZO, AMD, AT&T, Baan Software, Elf Aquitaine, SGS/Thomson, CRA, Glaxo, Heineken, ICI, Applied Materials, Mars, Motorola, Philips, Royal Dutch Airlines KLM; the Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Sematech, TRW, Van Leer, Volvo and Novartis, to name a few. In order to gather comparable samples, a minimum of 100 people with similar backgrounds and occupations were taken in each of the countries in which the companies operated.
Anmerkungen

Even though quotation marks are used for some part, the rest is also an exact copy of the original, which has been distributed between the main text and the footnote. By the way: what's the use of this list of firms, if the aim is to give a summary of Trompenaars' results.<br/> And on another note: CS seems not to be able to cite correctly, even if she tries to do so. In the citation it should be "departments" instead of "subsidiaries".

Sichter
Hindemith


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