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The influence of national culture on stock option programmes as motivators. The case of managers in Germany

von Prof. Dr. Cornelia Eva Scott

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[1.] Cs/Fragment 119 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:06:43 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Pollklas 1998, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith, WiseWoman
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 119, Zeilen: 1-21
Quelle: Pollklas 1998
Seite(n): 1, Zeilen:
In 1972 and 1976 the laws were extended to include all large companies, increasing the influence that workers have on internal management matters and in particular employment structural questions. The general Co-determination Act of 1976 is applicable to all companies with more than 2 000 employees. Although the basic provision regarding the make-up of the supervisory boards remains equal to that of the Iron and Steel Co-determination Act, details limit the influence of labour in this law. First, one of the representatives of the workers' side has to be an employee of the management level, who does not necessarily represent the interests of the employed. Furthermore, the chairperson of the supervisory board cannot be nominated without consent of the employer. The chair can cast the decisive vote in tied situations in the board.

Workers representation for small and medium-sized companies is regulated in the Works Constitution Act of 1972 (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz). In joint stock companies with up to 2 000 employees, and in any other type of companies with 500 – 2 000 employees, the share of workers' representatives on the supervisory boards is one third. In smaller companies, employees do not have any extended influence on management. However, they can form workers’ councils (Betriebsräte) that have a say in social and personnel matters in companies with five or more employees. The law commits workers' councils to compromise with companies rather than seeking confrontation. It explicitly forbids exertion of pressure on companies. The Works Constitution Act ensures representation of both unionized and nonunion workers however because of high levels of unionisation in Germany, union members dominate most council.

The laws were extended in 1972 and 1976 to all large corporations, increasing the rights of workers to influence in plant management and job structuring. The general Codetermination Act of 1976 affects all corporations with more than 2,000 employees. Although the basic provision regarding the composition of the supervisory boards remains equal to that of the Iron and Steel Codetermination Act, decisive details restrict the influence of labor in this law. First, one of the representatives of the workers' side has to be an employee of the management level, who does not necessarily represent the interests of the employed. Furthermore, the chairperson of the supervisory board cannot be nominated without consent of the employer. The chair can cast the decisive vote in tied situations in the board.

The Works Constitution Act of 1972 (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz) regulates workers' representation in small and medium-sized companies. In joint stock companies with up to 2,000 employees, and in any other type of enterprise with 500 - 2,000 employees, the share of workers' representatives on the supervisory boards is one third. In smaller corporations, employees do not have any extended influence on management. However, they can form workers' councils (Betriebsräte) in any enterprise with more than five employees. These councils have a voice in social and personnel matters. The law commits workers' councils to cooperate with with companies rather than seeking confrontation. It explicitly forbids exertion of pressure on companies. The Works Constitution Act ensures representation of both unionized and non-union workers, but because of high levels of unionization in Germany, union members dominate most councils.

Anmerkungen

Source is mentioned on the previous page, but without relation to this text fragment. There have been minor adaptations to the copied text, and the last word is missing the plural.

Sichter
WiseWoman

[2.] Cs/Fragment 119 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-06 19:48:18 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Global management 1995, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith, WiseWoman
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 119, Zeilen: 26-31
Quelle: Global management 1995
Seite(n): 300, Zeilen: Punkt 6
Decision-making is participative, and long-term plans are likely to be shared among organizational members. Operational decisions consider the views of those who must carry them out. The people involved in particular tasks are expected to make the routine decisions necessary to complete the task, and decisions are only referred to the superior when they involve unusual circumstances. Power differences between the different levels of hierarchy exist, but are minimized. [...] Decision making in general is participative, and long-term plans are likely to be shared among organizational members. Operational decisions incorporate the views of those who must carry them out. The people involved in particular tasks are expected to make the routine decisions necessary to complete the task, and decisions are only referred to the superior when they involve unusual circumstances. Power differences exist but are minimized, [...]
Anmerkungen

The text has been copied almost literally, the adaptations are minimal. There is no reference to the source.

Sichter
WiseWoman


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