In emotional cultures showing ones feelings e.g. smiling, laughing, grimacing, scowling and gesturing is socially acceptable, whether in corporate or private life. However, neutral cultures do not exhibit their feelings, but keep them carefully controlled and subdued.[FN 74] Trompenaars set the question in a workshop how the participants would behave if they were upset about something at work. According to Trompenaar´s findings it is least acceptable to show ones emotions in Ethiopia and Japan. Within Europe there is however a considerable variance, Austria is the most neutral (59 percent) and Spain, Italy and France (19 percent, 33 percent, 30 percent) the most emotional.
[FN 74: Trompenaars (1998), p. 70.]
Members of cultures which are affectively neutral do not telegraph their feelings but keep them carefully controlled and subdued. In contrast. In cultures high on affectivity people show their feelings plainly by laughing, smiling, grimacing, scowling and gesturing; [...]
A workshop exercise under this heading asks participants how they would behave if they felt upset about something at work. [...]
It is least acceptable in Ethiopia and Japan, [...] There are considerable variances between European countries, with Austria the most neutral (59%) and Spain, Italy and France the least (19%, 33% and 30%).
Although the reference is given, it is not made clear how much of the wording is from Trompenaars and how few is Cs's own. The take-over continues beyond the footnote. --> provisionally set to "verdaechtig", see discussion page
[...] In so-called “ascription orientated” societies the status of an individual is attributed to birth, kinship, gender or age, but also to connections (who you know) and your educational record (which University did you graduate from). Achievement orientated means that the individual is regarded on what he/she has accomplished, thus the question would be “what did you study”.[FN 76]
[FN 76: Trompenaars (1998), p. 10.]
Achievement versus ascription. Achievement means that you are judged on what you have recently accomplished and on your record. Ascription means that status is attributed to you, by birth, kinship, gender or age, but also by your connections (who you know) and your educational record (a graduate of Tokyo University or Haute Ecole Polytechnique).
In an achievement culture, the first question is likely to be "What did you study?", [...]
Again, more than the footnote hints at has been taken over from Trompenaars. --> verdaechtig (see discussion page) (Hindemith)
Furthermore Trompenaars also analysed the influence of region and discovered that there was a positive a correlation between Protestantism and achievement orientation whereas Catholics, Buddhists and Hindu cultures were more ascriptively orientated.
Both figures show that there is a correlation between Protestantism and achievement orientation, with Catholic, Buddhist and Hindu cultures scoring considerably more ascriptively.
Mostly word-for-word - Cs made a typo when she wrote "region" instead of "religion", and introduced a number of grammatical errors ("Catholics, Buddhists and Hindu cultures"). No reference given to the original text, but it shows through in the stuttering "a positive a correlation", whereas the original phrasing only was "a correlation". (Remark: The page and line numbers given above refer to the first edition of Trompenaars.) --> verdaechtig (not 100% correct, but also not 100% sure, this could not count as an acceptable paraphrase -- reference is given at the end of the paragraph)
The first and the most superficial layer of the onion represent words, gestures, pictures and objects that often include complex meanings that are recognized only by those who share this particular culture.
The outer and most superficial layer of the onion is symbols which are words, gestures, pictures, or objects carrying a special meaning that is only recognized by those who share the culture.
It is not clear, if Jürgensen (2006) is the real source. Still, it is proof that the sentences Cs uses have already existed in nearly the same form before her thesis in 2008. This probably comes from Hofstede (2001): “symbols are words, gestures, pictures, and objects that carry often complex meaning recognized as such only by those who share the culture” (2001, p.10). This quote can be found here. I have demoted the fragment to "verdaechtig", as it is short and also, because the theory it describes is attributed to Hofstede in the thesis. It is possible (albeit unlikely) that the chosen words have in the field of the thesis the quality of a well-known definition that cannot be expressed in other words.
It aims “to combine the principle of freedom in the market place (subject to legal regulations that exclude, for example, cartelisation in the markets for goods and services) by raising consumer opportunities, motivating providers to achieve innovations and technical progress, and distributing income and profit according to individual achievement.”[FN 2]
[FN 2: Müller-Armack (1956), p. 243.]
This was fundamentally supposed to enable the free play of forces on the market by raising consumer opportunities, motivating providers to achieve innovations and technical progress, and distributing income and profit according to individual achievement.
Very strange, indeed. Although marked as a citation nothing really "fits": the source is supposed to be German, but there exists a different (electronic) source in English which is about "Social Market Economy", is not cited here but still contains the exact same wording. The page-number given does not fit with the page-numbers given in the bibliography (and does not point at the lemma "Soziale Marktwirtschaft" in the "Handwörterbuch der Sozialwissenschaften"). What has happened here?