- Problematic text parallels can be found in the following chapters (state of analysis: August 31, 2016):
- 1. Introduction
- 1.1. Kidney anatomy (p. 13-16): pages 13, 14, 15, 16
- 1.2. Protein kinase (p. 17-21): pages 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
- 1.3. The SGK kinases (p. 22): page 22 – [completely]
- 1.4. Tissue distribution of SGK isoforms (p. 28-29): page 28 – [almost completely (literally)]
- 1.6. Regulation of SGK kinase activity (p. 29-30): pages 29, 30 – [completely (literally)]
- 1.7. Degradation of SGKs (p. 31): page 31 – [completely (literally)]
- 1.8. Influence of SGK on renal function (p. 31-45): pages 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 – [almost completely (except 5 sentences)]
- 4. Methods
- 6. Discussion (p. 85-88): page 88.
- Substantial parts of this thesis are identical to portions of several Wikipedia articles. The Wikipedia is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis. E.g. Wikipedia - Kidney (2007), Wikipedia - Protein kinase (2007).
- Boini (2006): Several pages are identical to a doctoral thesis that was defended approximately one year earlier. The supervisor is the same.
- Lang et al. (2006): A review article by the supervisor appears to be the source for very substantial passages of copied text that include numerous references to the literature. This article is mentioned once, but without any indication how much text is identical to this source.
- Fragment 013 03: The first page of the thesis is a verbatim copy with respect to a Wikipedia article.
- Fragment 023 02: The title of an article not included in the thesis bibliography but found in the source is included as the last sentence with a typographical error in the source corrected.
- Fragment 024 01: A whole page is an identical copy, including numerous references to the literature.
- Fragment 056 00: An identical figure illustrating a methodological approach is given without direct attribution. The reader may get the impression that the measurements shown have been obtained by the author of the thesis.
- Fragment 016 01: A copied passage speaks of "about 200 quarts of fluid". The usage of non-SI units appears odd in a scientific publication.
- Some mistakes were perhaps introduced into the body of the text by means of a copying error, see for instance: Fragment 023 02, Fragment 030 01, Fragment 032 01, Fragment 034 01.
- The text from the fragments Fragment 042 01, Fragment 043 01, and Fragment 044 01 is from an online documentation from the Johannes-Kepler University in Linz (Saparov 2007) that is no longer online, but archived without illustrations at the Internet Archives . The illustrations on page 42 (Fig. 10) and page 43 (Fig. 11) are taken from the sources given by Saparov.
- Page VI of the thesis contains the following declaration:
"I hereby declare that this work has been carried out by me under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Med. Florian Lang at the Institute of Physiology, Eberhard- Karls-University Tübingen, Germany. Only the sources indicated have been used. [...]"
- Prof. Dr. Florian Lang was the supervisor of the thesis Boini (2006), the first author of Lang et al. (2006), as well as the co-author of several other documented sources. For that reason he could have noticed the very substantial text parallels between the dissertation and those sources.
- Some of the text, data, and illustrations found in Chapter 5 "Results" are also found in a journal article published prior to the dissertation: Artunc, F., Amann, K., Nasir, O. et al. J Mol Med (2006) 84: 737. doi:10.1007/s00109-006-0082-0 . Dsa is listed as co-author for this paper. The paper is listed under "Publications" on page 109 of the dissertation, but it is not made clear which data in the dissertation has already been published where. The following parallels for this paper (other papers are listed under "Publications") can be found:
Dissertation Artunc et al 2006 Table 41 Table 1 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 20 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 22 Figure 4 Figure 23 Figure 5 Figure 24 Figure 6 Table 6 Table 3 2 pp. 86-87
(Characterization of sgk1−/−
and sgk1 +/+ mice under Doca/high salt)
- 1. Four values are different
- 2. Table 5 (dissertation) vs. Table 2 (paper) have different values, although the rows are the same
- 1. Four values are different
- Currently there are 58 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 56 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 2 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
- The publication has 73 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 37 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 50.7%. The 73 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
- From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 35% of the main part of the publication.
- In all, text was taken from 24 sources.
The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:
- grau="Komplettplagiat" (copy & paste): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
- rot="Verschleierung" (disguised plagiarism): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
- gelb="Bauernopfer" (pawn sacrifice): the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or the closeness of the copy to the source is not made clear by the reference.
(state of analysis: August 31, 2016)