As to definition of security community, Karl Deutsch defines security community as a group of people that have become integrated and consider war as an obsolete instrument of conflict resolution. This group of people consider themselves as a community and produce a favourable ground for the establishment of peaceful conflict resolution institutions. Distinction is made between amalgamated security communities and pluralistic security one. Deutsch argues that by the first case the states have abandoned their full sovereignty and merge into an expanded state; but, by the second one, states retain their legal independence but develop common institutions with a sense of “we-ness”. Adler and Barnett point out two types of pluralistic communities – loosely and tightly coupled – according to whether they are close to giving up the full sovereignty or the vice versa – government centralization.225
Fulvio Attina gives us examples of each community type mentioned above. The formation of federal states like Germany in the 19th century is a good example for the amalgamated security community. Scandinavia, Canada and the United States, and the Euro-Atlantic community are examples of the loosely coupled form of pluralistic security community. The author points out the European Union as an example of the tightly coupled form of security community; but, at the same time, he underlines that the whole European continent is hardly a security community, and the wider Europe with its surroundings “… is [still far from being qualified as a case of this arrangement.”]
225 Attina Fulvio and Rossi Rosa – European Neighbourhood Policy: Political, Economic and Social Issues. The Jean Monnet Centre “Euro-med”, Department of Political Studies, University of Catania, 2004. pp.17-18
A security community, as initially theorized by Karl Deutsch, is a group of people that have become integrated and consider war as an obsolete instrument of conflict resolution (Deutsch et al., 1957). A security community is brought into being by the high level of transaction and communication flows that bind together a group of people who think of themselves as a community, and produce favourable conditions for the establishment of institutions of peaceful conflict resolution. Deutsch made a distinction between amalgamated security communities, which are formed by the states that
abandon their full sovereignty and merge into an expanded state, and pluralistic security communities in which states retain their legal independence but develop common institutions and a sense of “we-ness” and “we-feeling”. As Adler and Barnett remark (1998), pluralistic communities vary between two forms - the loosely and tightly coupled form - on whether they are close to persistent state sovereignty separation or emerging government centralization. Therefore, the right-hand part of the line of regional security systems is populated with three forms of arrangements. An example of amalgamated security communities is the formation of federal states like Germany in the 19th century. Scandinavia, Canada and the United States, and the Euro-Atlantic community are examples of the loosely coupled form of pluralistic security community. Finally, the European Union is example of the tightly coupled form of security communities, but the whole European continent is hardly a security community, and the wider Europe and its surrounding area is still far from being qualified as a case of this arrangement.
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