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Arteriogenesis in Gja5 (Connexin-40) deficient mice

von Dr. Haitao Wang

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[1.] Haw/Fragment 016 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-12 16:50:16 Schumann
Ebong et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Haw, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Endothelial gap junctions are channels that permit and strictly regulate communication throughout the endothelial monolayer and between endothelial cells and adjacent smooth muscle and circulating blood cells. Endothelial cell migration and growth, particularly following injury and during angiogenesis, depend on communication through gap junctions[71-75]. In addition, gap junctions coordinate vascular tone and vasomotion [76-78] and participate in the regulation of immunoinflammatory responses[79, 80].

[...] Gap junctions are formed by a pair of hemichannels called connexons, each contributed by one of two neighboring cells. Connexons are composed of six connexin monomer subunits arranged around a central pore(Fig.1.6.)[82].


71. Kwak, B.R., et al., Inhibition of endothelial wound repair by dominant negative connexin inhibitors. Mol Biol Cell, 2001. 12(4): p. 831-45.

72. Larson, D.M., et al., Differential regulation of connexin43 and connexin37 in endothelial cells by cell density, growth, and TGF-beta1. Am J Physiol, 1997. 272(2 Pt 1): p. C405-15.

73. Pepper, M.S., et al., Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells. J Cell Biol, 1989. 109(6 Pt 1): p. 3027-38.

74. Xie, H.Q. and V.W. Hu, Modulation of gap junctions in senescent endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res, 1994. 214(1): p. 172-6.

75. Yeh, H.I., et al., Age-related alteration of gap junction distribution and connexin expression in rat aortic endothelium. J Histochem Cytochem, 2000. 48(10): p. 1377-89.

76. Chaytor, A.T., W.H. Evans, and T.M. Griffith, Central role of heterocellular gap junctional communication in endothelium-dependent relaxations of rabbit arteries. J Physiol, 1998. 508 ( Pt 2): p. 561-73.

77. Christ, G.J., et al., Gap junctions in vascular tissues. Evaluating the role of intercellular communication in the modulation of vasomotor tone. Circ Res, 1996. 79(4): p. 631-46.

78. de Wit, C., et al., Impaired conduction of vasodilation along arterioles in connexin40-deficient mice. Circ Res, 2000. 86(6): p. 649-55.

79. Oviedo-Orta, E., R.J. Errington, and W.H. Evans, Gap junction intercellular communication during lymphocyte transendothelial migration. Cell Biol Int, 2002. 26(3): p. 253-63.

80. Wong, C.W., T. Christen, and B.R. Kwak, Connexins in leukocytes: shuttling messages? Cardiovasc Res, 2004. 62(2): p. 357-67.

82. Sohl, G. and K. Willecke, Gap junctions and the connexin protein family. Cardiovasc Res, 2004. 62(2): p. 228-32.

Endothelial gap junctions are channels that permit and strictly regulate communication throughout the endothelial monolayer and between endothelial cells and adjacent smooth muscle and circulating blood cells. Endothelial cell migration and growth, particularly following injury and during angiogenesis, depend on communication through gap junctions (31, 33, 38, 51, 52). In addition, gap junctions coordinate vascular tone and vasomotion (11, 13, 17) and participate in the regulation of immunoinflammatory responses (36, 50).

Gap junctions are formed by a pair of hemichannels called connexons, each contributed by one of two neighboring cells. Connexons are composed of six connexin monomer subunits arranged around a central pore.


11. Chaytor AT, Evans WH, and Griffith TM. Central role of heterocellular gap junctional communication in endothelium-dependent relaxations of rabbit arteries. J Physiol 508: 561–573, 1998.

13. Christ GJ, Spray DC, el-Sabban M, Moore LK, and Brink PR. Gap junctions in vascular tissues. Evaluating the role of intercellular communication in the modulation of vasomotor tone. Circ Res 79: 631–646, 1996.

17. De Wit C, Roos F, Bolz SS, Kirchhoff S, Krüger O, Willecke K, and Pohl U. Impaired conduction of vasodilation along arterioles in connexin40-deficient mice. Circ Res 86: 649–655, 2000.

31. Kwak BR, Pepper MS, Gros DB, and Meda P. Inhibition of endothelial wound repair by dominant negative connexin inhibitors. Mol Biol Cell 12: 831–845, 2001.

33. Larson DM, Wrobleski MJ, Sagar GD, Westphale EM, and Beyer EC. Differential regulation of connexin43 and connexin37 in endothelial cells by cell density, growth, and TGF-beta1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 272: C405–C415, 1997.

36. Oviedo-Orta E, Errington RJ, and Evans WH. Gap junction intercellular communication during lymphocyte transendothelial migration. Cell Biol Int 26: 253–263, 2002.

38. Pepper MS, Spray DC, Chanson M, Montesano R, Orci L, and Meda P. Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells. J Cell Biol 109: 3027–3038, 1989.

50. Wong CW, Christen T, and Kwak BR. Connexins in leukocytes: shuttling messages? Cardiovasc Res 62: 357–367, 2004.

51. Xie HQ and Hu VW. Modulation of gap junctions in senescent endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res 214: 172–176, 1994.

52. Yeh HI, Chang HM, Lu WW, Lee YN, Ko YS, Severs NJ, and Tsai CH. Age-related alteration of gap junction distribution and connexin expression in rat aortic endothelium. J Histochem Cytochem 48: 1377–1389, 2000.

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[2.] Haw/Fragment 016 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-12 16:49:47 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, Haw, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Connexin 2010

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Connexins, or gap junction proteins, are a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions (an entirely different family of proteins, the innexins, form gap junctions in invertebrates)[81].

81. Lodish, H.F., R.K. Rodriguez, and D.J. Klionsky, Points of view: lectures: can't learn with them, can't learn without them. Cell Biol Educ, 2004. 3(4): p. 202-11.

Connexins, or gap junction proteins, are a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions (an entirely different family of proteins, the innexins, form gap junctions in invertebrates).[1]

1. Lodish, Harvey F.; Arnold Berk, Paul Matsudaira, Chris A. Kaiser, Monty Krieger, Mathew P. Scott, S. Lawrence Zipursky, James Darnell (2004). Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 230–1. ISBN 0-7167-4366-3.

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[3.] Haw/Fragment 016 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-12 16:49:55 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, Haw, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Connexin 2010

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Connexins are four-pass transmembrane proteins with both C and N cytoplasmic termini, a cytoplasmic loop (CL) and two extra-cellular loops, (EL-1) and (EL-2). Connexins are assembled in groups of six to form hemichannels, or connexons, and two hemichannels then combine to form a gap junction. They usually weigh between 26 and 60 kDa, and have an average length of 380 amino acids. The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions, each of which may exhibit different functional properties including pore conductance, size selectivity, charge selectivity, voltage gating, and chemical gating. Connexins are four-pass transmembrane proteins with both C and N cytoplasmic termini, a cytoplasmic loop (CL) and two extra-cellular loops, (EL-1) and (EL-2). Connexins are assembled in groups of six to form hemichannels, or connexons, and two hemichannels then combine to form a gap junction. [...] They usually weigh between 26 and 60 kDa, and have an average length of 380 amino acids. The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions, each of which may exhibit different functional properties including pore conductance, size selectivity, charge selectivity, voltage gating, and chemical gating.
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