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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 7-9, 12-26
Quelle: Buschmann and Schaper 1999
Seite(n): 122, Zeilen: r. Spalte: 10ff
FSS as a molding force was recognized over 100 years ago; the embryologist Thoma described the relationship between the diameter of an artery and its blood flow velocity[47]. [...] Any sustained deviation from that relationship initiates processes of either growth or atrophy. A sustained increase of fluid shear stress leads to activation of the endothelium.

1.3.3. Activation of the endothelium

It is currently not well enough known how the stimulus of increased shear stress is transmitted from the endothelial cell membrane to the nucleus, where it initiates the transcriptional activity of a number of genes, partially via a protein that binds to the shear stress responsive element that is present in the promotor of several genes (nitric oxide synthase (NOS), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1))[49]. The first step in the activation of the endothelium is the opening of chloride channels that are also responsible for the volume control of endothelial cells. Characteristically stress-activated endothelium appears swollen in scanning electron microscopic images[50], adhesion molecules are upregulated[51], and the conditions are perfect for the adhesion and invasion of circulating cells.


47. Yancopoulos, G.D., M. Klagsbrun, and J. Folkman, Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and growth factors: ephrins enter the fray at the border. Cell, 1998. 93(5): p. 661-4.

49. Shyy, Y.J., et al., Fluid shear stress induces a biphasic response of human monocyte chemotactic protein 1 gene expression in vascular endothelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1994. 91(11): p. 4678-82.

50. Ziegelstein, R.C., et al., Cytosolic alkalinization of vascular endothelial cells produced by an abrupt reduction in fluid shear stress. Circ Res, 1998. 82(7): p. 803-9.

51. Chappell, D.C., et al., Oscillatory shear stress stimulates adhesion molecule expression in cultured human endothelium. Circ Res, 1998. 82(5): p. 532-9.

Shear stress as a molding force was recognized over 100 years ago; the embryologist Thoma described the relationship between the diameter of an artery and its blood flow velocity (14). Any sustained deviation from that relationship initiates processes of either growth or atrophy. A sustained increase of fluid shear stress leads to activation of the endothelium.

Activation of the endothelium

It is presently not well enough known how the stimulus of increased shear stress is transmitted from the endothelial cell membrane to the nucleus, where it initiates the transcriptional activity of a number of genes (12), partially via a protein that binds to the shear stress responsive element that is present in the promotor of several genes (NOS, PDGF, MCP-1). The first step in the activation of the endothelium is the opening of chloride channels that are also responsible for the volume control of endothelial cells. Characteristically stress-activated endothelium appears swollen in scanning electron microscopic images (15). Adhesion molecules are upregulated (4), and the conditions are perfect for the adhesion and invasion of circulating cells.


4. Chappell, D. C., S. E. Varner, R. M. Nerem, R. M. Medford, and R. W. Alexander. Oscillatory shear stress stimulates adhesion molecule expression in cultured human endothelium. Circ. Res. 82: 532–539, 1998.

12. Shyy, Y.-J., H.-J. Hsieh, S. Usami, and S. Chien. Fluid shear stress induces a biphasic response of human monocyte chemotactic protein 1 expression in vascular endothelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 4678–4682, 1994.

14. Yancopoulos, G. D., M. Klagsbrun, and J. Folkman: Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and growth factors: ephrins enter the fray at the border. Cell 93: 661–664, 1998.

15. Ziegelstein, R. C., P. S. Blank, L. Cheng, and M. C. Capogrossi. Cytosolic alkalinization of vascular endothelial cells produced by an abrupt reduction in fluid shear stress. Circ. Res. 82: 803–809, 1998.

Anmerkungen

Ein Verweis auf die Quelle fehlt.

Sichter
(Hindemith) P.Schwartz

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