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[1.] Iam/Fragment 003 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:26:38 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hawkins and Dawson 2006, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 3, Zeilen: 3-12
Quelle: Hawkins and Dawson 2006
Seite(n): 1653, 1654, Zeilen: 1653: 33-43 - 1654, l.col: 1-3
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world (626,000 diagnoses per year) and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death (598,000 deaths per year). Although HCC predominantly is a problem in developing countries, its incidence is expected to rise over the next decade in North America largely because of the increasing incidence of hepatitis C2 and the 1% to 4% risk per year of HCC developing in patients with cirrhosis (Helton et al. 2003). Unfortunately, the overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with HCC has remained steady at 3% to 5% (Parkin 2001). HCC is particularly challenging to treat because of to the common locally advanced or multifocal presentation of disease that develops in a background of cirrhosis because the survival of patients with HCC is related strongly to underlying liver function (Chevret et al. 1999).

Chevret S, Trinchet JC, Mathieu D, Rached AA, Beaugrand M, Chastang C (1999) A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Groupe d'Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire. J Hepatol 31:133-141

Helton WS, Di BA, Chari R, Schwartz M, Bruix J (2003) Treatment strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Surg 7:401-411

Parkin DM (2001) Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2:533-543

[page 1653]

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world (626,000 diagnoses per year) and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death (598,000 deaths per year).1 Although HCC predominantly is a problem in developing countries, its incidence is expected to rise over the next decade in North America largely because of the increasing incidence of hepatitis C2 and the 1% to 4% risk per year of HCC developing in patients with cirrhosis.3 Unfortunately, the overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with HCC has remained steady at 3% to 5%.1

HCC is particularly challenging to treat because of to the common locally advanced or multifocal presentation of disease that de-

[page 1654]

velops in a background of cirrhosis. Because the survival of patients with HCC is related strongly to underlying liver function,4 [...]


1. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:74-108.

2. El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:745- 750.

3. Helton WS, Di Bisceglie A, Chari R, Schwartz M, Bruix J. Treatment strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:401-411.

4. Chevret S, Trinchet JC, Mathieu D, Rached AA, Beaugrand M, Chastang C. A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Groupe d’Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire. J Hepatol. 1999;31:133-141.

Anmerkungen

The first lines of the thesis are taken verbatim from a source that is mentioned nowhere in the thesis. Also references to the literature have been taken (except one, where apparently the superscript "2" has been overlooked, such that the thesis talks now about "hepatitis C2")

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Iam/Fragment 003 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:44:00 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, Robbins and Zhao 2007, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 3, Zeilen: 13-22
Quelle: Robbins and Zhao 2007
Seite(n): 135, Zeilen: 8-18
Consequently, for most patients, cancer can be considered a chronic disease. The total radiation dose that can be administered safely to cancer patients is limited by the risk of complications arising in those normal tissues unavoidably included within the treatment volume. Of particular concern are the late effects that arise several months to years post irradiation. While improvements in radiation oncology such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have led to a reduction in the dose of normal tissue irradiated, late effects remain a significant risk (Robbins and Zhao 2004). The National Cancer Institute has identified long-term survival from cancer as one of the new areas of public health emphasis, particularly studying adverse long-term or late effects of cancer and its treatment (National Cancer Institute’s Plans and Priorities for Cancer Research: http://plan.cancer.gov/public/survivor.htm).

Robbins ME, Zhao W (2004) Chronic oxidative stress and radiation-induced late normal tissue injury: a review. Int J Radiat Biol 80:251-259

Consequently, for most patients, cancer can be considered a chronic disease. The total radiation dose that can be administered safely to cancer patients is limited by the risk of complications arising in those normal tissues unavoidably included within the treatment volume. Of particular concern are the late effects that can arise several months to years postirradiation. While improvements in radiation oncology such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have led to a reduction in the volume of normal tissue irradiated, late effects remain a significant risk. The National Cancer Institute has identified long-term survival from cancer as one of the new areas of public health emphasis, particularly studying adverse long-term or late effects of cancer and its treatment (National Cancer Institute’s Plans and Priorities for Cancer Research).
Anmerkungen

The names of the original authors are given in passing (though to a different article). Nothing has been marked as a citation although the wording is nearly identical.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[3.] Iam/Fragment 003 27 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-13 12:21:52 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, Quesaraku et al. 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Singulus
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 3, Zeilen: 27-32
Quelle: Quesaraku et al. 2009
Seite(n): 910, Zeilen: r. col. 4ff.
The efficacy of this therapy is limited, among other things, by the fact that it cannot be delivered without hitting normal, healthy tissue surrounding the tumour, with radiation-induced acute and chronic side effects. Radiation is known to induce DNA damage and chromosomal instability of cells both from tumorous and normal tissue (Sakata et al. 2007). However, beyond this, there are further [mechanisms involved in the actions occurring after the exposure of cells and tissue to ionizing radiation, such as radiation-induced apoptosis (Hasegawa et al. 2002).]

Sakata K, Someya M, Matsumoto Y, Hareyama M (2007) Ability to repair DNA double-strand breaks related to cancer susceptibility and radiosensitivity. Radiat Med 25:433-438

[Hasegawa M, Imai R, Nojima K, Sakurai H, Suzuki Y, Kawashima M, Matsuura M, Nakamura Y, Nakano T (2002) [Radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo: therapeutic significance of apoptosis in radiation therapy]. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi 62:535-539]

The efficacy of this therapy is limited, among other things, by the fact that it cannot be delivered without hitting normal, healthy tissue surrounding the tumour, with radiation-induced acute and chronic side effects. Radiation is known to induce DNA damage and chromosomal instability of cells both from tumorous and normal tissue (24). However, beyond this, there are further mechanisms involved in the actions occurring after the exposure of cells and tissue to ionizing radiation, such as radiation-induced apoptosis (25) and radiation-induced changes in gene expression (26–28).

24. Sakata K, Someya M,Matsumoto Y, Hareyama M. Ability to repair DNA double-strand breaks related to cancer susceptibility and radiosensitivity. Radiat Med 2007; 25: 433–8.

25. Hasegawa M, Imai R, Nojima K, et al. Radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo: therapeutic significance of apoptosis in radiation therapy. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi 2002; 62: 535–9.

26. Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, et al. Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 2006; 165: 318–25.

27. Christiansen H, Sheikh N, Saile B, et al. X-irradiation in rat liver: consequent upregulation of hepcidin and downregulation of hemojuvelin and ferroportin-1 gene expression. Radiology 2007; 242: 189–97.

28. Moriconi F, Christiansen H, Raddatz D, et al. Effect of radiation on gene expression of rat liver chemokines: in vivo and in vitro studies. Radiat Res 2008; 169: 162–9.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Singulus), Graf Isolan


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