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[1.] Iam/Fragment 011 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:43:29 Graf Isolan
Christiansen et al 2007, Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 1-5
Quelle: Christiansen et al 2007
Seite(n): 190, Zeilen: col 2: 22-29
Previous studies has reported that the chemokines and cytokines are important for hepatocellular damage, repair, and fibrosis development in other toxic liver injuries (Jaeschke et al. 1996;Ramadori and Armbrust 2001;Ramadori et al. 2008). Similarly, cell types of different organs interact by way of cytokines in the development of normal tissue reactions after radiation therapy (Herskind et al. 1998).

Herskind C, Bamberg M, Rodemann HP (1998) The role of cytokines in the development of normal-tissue reactions after radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 174 Suppl 3:12-15

Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE, Roth RA (1996) Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 139:213-226

Ramadori G, Armbrust T (2001) Cytokines in the liver. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:777- 784

Ramadori G, Moriconi F, Malik I, Dudas J (2008) Physiology and pathophysiology of liver inflammation, damage and repair. J Physiol Pharmacol 59 Suppl 1:107-117

Cytokines are important for hepatocellular damage, repair, and fibrosis development in other toxic liver injuries (26–28). Similarly, cell types of different organs interact by way of cytokines in the development of normal tissue reactions after radiation therapy (29).

26. Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE, Roth RA. Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996;139:213–216.

27. Neubauer K, Saile B, Ramadori G. Liver fibrosis and altered matrix synthesis. Can J Gastroenterol 2001;15:187–193.

28. Ramadori G, Armbrust T. Cytokines in the liver. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13: 777–784.

29. Herskind C, Bamberg M, Rodemann HP. The role of cytokines in the development of normal-tissue reactions after radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 1998;174:12–15.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Iam/Fragment 011 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-19 21:29:40 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, Moriconi et al 2008, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 5-12
Quelle: Moriconi et al 2008
Seite(n): 162, Zeilen: right col. 3-12
The response of hepatocytes to radiation is heterogeneous and is dependent on oxygen concentration. However, in general, hepatocytes are considered more radioresistant than other cells (Alati et al. 1989b;Alati et al. 1989a). In contrast, the liver is a radiosensitive organ. The threshold dose for injury after whole-liver irradiation has been reported to be between 20 and 30 Gy (Anscher et al. 1990). In animal studies, liver irradiation above a threshold dose is not followed by a recovery phase and a complete return to normal. Instead, progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis may occur (Geraci et al. 1993).

Alati T, Eckl P, Jirtle RL (1989a) An in vitro micronucleus assay for determining the radiosensitivity of hepatocytes. Radiat Res 119:562-568

Alati T, Van CM, Jirtle RL (1989b) Radiosensitivity of parenchymal hepatocytes as a function of oxygen concentration. Radiat Res 118:488-501

Anscher MS, Crocker IR, Jirtle RL (1990) Transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in irradiated liver. Radiat Res 122:77-85

Geraci JP, Mariano MS (1993) Radiation hepatology of the rat: parenchymal and nonparenchymal cell injury. Radiat Res 136:205-213

Geraci JP, Mariano MS, Jackson KL (1993) Radiation hepatology of the rat: time-dependent recovery. Radiat Res 136:214-221

The response of hepatocytes to radiation is heterogeneous and is dependent on oxygen concentration (4). However, in general, hepatocytes are considered more radioresistant than other cells (5–10). In contrast, the liver is a radiosensitive organ. The threshold dose for injury after whole-liver irradiation has been reported to be between 20 and 30 Gy (11). In animal studies, liver irradiation above a threshold dose is not followed by a recovery phase and a complete return to normal. Instead, progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis may occur (12).

4. T. Alati, M. Van Cleeff and R. L. Jirtle, Radiosensitivity of parenchymal hepatocytes as a function of oxygen concentration. Radiat. Res. 118, 488–501 (1989).

5. T. Alati, P. Eckl and R. L. Jirtle, An in vitro micronucleus assay for determining the radiosensitivity of hepatocytes. Radiat. Res. 119, 562–568 (1989).

6. T. Alati, M. Van Cleeff, S. C. Strom and R. L. Jirtle, Radiation sensitivity of adult human parenchymal hepatocytes. Radiat. Res. 115, 152–160 (1988).

7. R. L. Jirtle, G. Michalopoulos, J. R. McLain and J. Crowley, Transplantation system for determining the clonogenic survival of parenchymal hepatocytes exposed to ionizing radiation. Cancer Res. 41, 3512–3518 (1981).

8. R. L. Jirtle, J. R. McLain, S. C. Strom and G. Michalopoulos, Repair of radiation damage in noncycling parenchymal hepatocytes. Br. J. Radiol. 55, 847–851 (1982).

9. R. L. Jirtle, G. Michalopoulos, S. C. Strom, P. M. DeLuca and M. N. Gould, The survival of parenchymal hepatocytes irradiated with low and high LET radiation. Br. J. Cancer 6, 197–201 (1984).

10. R. L. Jirtle, P. M. DeLuca, W. M. Hinshaw and M. N. Gould, Survival of parenchymal hepatocytes irradiated with 14.3 MeV neutrons. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 895–899 (1984).

11. R. L. Jirtle, M. S. Anscher and T. Alati, Radiation sensitivity of the liver. Adv. Radiat. Biol. 14, 269–311 (1990).

12. J. P. Geraci, M. S. Mariano and K. L. Jackson, Radiation hepatology of the rat: Time-dependent recovery. Radiat. Res. 136, 214–221 (1993).

Anmerkungen

Nothing is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[3.] Iam/Fragment 011 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:43:20 Graf Isolan
Christiansen et al 2007, Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 12-17
Quelle: Christiansen et al 2007
Seite(n): 190, Zeilen: col 2: 29-41
Investigators have shown that hepatocytes are not substantially damaged by radiation. Still, radiation can weaken the defense mechanisms of hepatocytes, and this weakening can lead to the susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in-vitro in some hepatocytes (Christiansen et al. 2004). Furthermore, results of a recent study indicate that whole-liver irradiation in the rat leads to development of steatosis within the first 48 hours after irradiation (Christiansen et al. 2006).

Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Rave-Frank M, Hess CF, Schmidberger H, Ramadori G (2006) Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 165:318-325

Christiansen H, Saile B, Neubauer-Saile K, Tippelt S, Rave-Frank M, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Hess CF, Schmidberger H, Ramadori G (2004) Irradiation leads to susceptibility of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha mediated apoptosis. Radiother Oncol 72:291-296

Investigators have shown that hepatocytes are not substantially damaged by radiation. Still, radiation can weaken the defense mechanisms of hepatocytes, and this weakening can lead to the susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro in some hepatocytes (30). Furthermore, results of a recent study indicate that whole-liver irradiation in the rat leads to development of steatosis within the first 48 hours after irradiation (31).

30. Christiansen H, Saile B, Neubauer-Saile K, et al. Irradiation leads to susceptibility of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha mediated apoptosis. Radiother Oncol 2004;72:291–296.

31. Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, et al. Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 2006;165:318–325.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[4.] Iam/Fragment 011 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:42:49 Graf Isolan
Christiansen et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 17-21
Quelle: Christiansen et al 2006
Seite(n): 318, Zeilen: right col. 9-13
The acute clinical period of radiation-induced liver disease after irradiation tends to be relatively silent; the subacute phase is characterized by the development of anicteric ascites, elevation of liver enzymes, rapid weight gain, and liver enlargement 2 weeks to 4 months after treatment (Lawrence et al. 1995).

Lawrence TS, Robertson JM, Anscher MS, Jirtle RL, Ensminger WD, Fajardo LF (1995) Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31:1237-1248

The acute clinical period of radiation-induced liver disease after irradiation tends to be relatively silent; the subacute phase is characterized by the development of anicteric ascites, elevation of liver enzymes, rapid weight gain, and liver enlargement 2 weeks to 4 months after treatment (12).

12. T. S. Lawrence, J. M. Robertson, M. S. Anscher, R. L. Jirtle, W. D. Ensminger and L. F. Fajardo, Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 31, 1237–1248 (1995).

Anmerkungen

Identical, not marked as a citation, no source given.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[5.] Iam/Fragment 011 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:44:33 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Sheikh 2006, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 22-28
Quelle: Sheikh 2006
Seite(n): 7, Zeilen: 12-16; 22-24
Once it became obvious that the liver is injured after irradiation, the individual liver cell types would be introduced in culture to investigate a hierarchy of the events triggering after irradiation in the liver. Besides the ability to respond to the cytokine action, liver parenchyma and non-parenchaymal cells express a great variety of receptors for chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and prostaglandins and represent therefore the major target for a multiple set of mediators involved in defense reaction after liver irradiation (Christiansen et al. 2007).

Christiansen H, Sheikh N, Saile B, Reuter F, Rave-Frank M, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Hille A, Hess CF, Ramadori G (2007) x-Irradiation in rat liver: consequent upregulation of hepcidin and downregulation of hemojuvelin and ferroportin-1 gene expression. Radiology 242:189-197

Once it became obvious that the liver is a primary target organ for the APR, the individual liver cell types were introduced in culture to investigate a hierarchy of the events triggering the full APR in the liver. Besides the ability to respond to the cytokine action, different cell types within the liver are also able to express IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and other modulator cytokines of the hepatic APR (Ramadori and Christ, 1999). [...] Hepatocytes express a great variety of receptors for cytokines, growth factors, and prostaglandins and therefore, represent the major target for a multiple set of mediators involved in both systemic and local host defense reactions.

Ramadori G and Christ B. Cytokines and the hepatic acute-phase response. Semin Liver Dis 19: 141-155, 1999.

Anmerkungen

Adapted to fit Iam's subject, but still in large parts identical. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[6.] Iam/Fragment 011 30 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 12:13:57 Guckar
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hawkins and Dawson 2006, Iam, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 11, Zeilen: 30-32
Quelle: Hawkins and Dawson 2006
Seite(n): 1654, Zeilen: l.col: 11-13, 28-30
Resection and liver transplantation are the treatments for HCC with the most mature outcome data (Cheng et al. 2004a;Iwatsuki et al. 1991) but above 15% of patients with HCC are candidates for resection or transplantation, many other therapies have been investigated.

Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, Liu HS, Jian JJ, Lin YM, Sung JL, Jan GJ (2004a) Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1502-1509

Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE, Sheahan DG, Yokoyama I, Demetris AJ, Todo S, Tzakis AG, Van Thiel DH, Carr B, Selby R, . (1991) Hepatic resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg 214:221-228

Resection and liver transplantation are the treatments for HCC with the most mature outcome data.12–15 [...]

Because <15% of patients with HCC are candidates for resection or transplantation, many other therapies have been investigated.


12. Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE, Sheahan DG, et al. Hepatic resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg. 1991;214:221-228; discussion, 228-229.

13. Carr BI, Selby R, Madariaga J, Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE. Prolonged survival after liver transplantation and cancer chemotherapy for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplant Proc. 1993;25(1 Pt 2):1128-1129.

14. Stone MJ, Klintmalm GB, Polter D, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot study in 20 patients. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104:196-202.

15. Cherqui D. Role of adjuvant treatment in liver transplantation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma [review]. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 1998;5:35-40.

36. Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, et al. Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:1502-1509.

Anmerkungen

To be continued on the next page: Iam/Fragment 012 01

Note that the meaning of the copied text is badly reproduced: "<15%" --> "above 15%", causality "because" is lost.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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