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Typus
KeinPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 10-31
Quelle: Malik et al 2010
Seite(n): 1801-1802, Zeilen: 1801: right col. 14ff - 1802:left col. 1ff
Chemokines are thought to be responsible for recruiting inflammatory cells. They are actively involved in inflammation, tissue repair and development of fibrosis (Marra 2002). The chemokine family is divided into four main groups based on their structure and chemotactic activity for specific leukocyte populations: C, CC, CXC and CX3C. The subset of CXC chemokines containing a glycine-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif, which immediately precedes the CXC residues, selectively targets neutrophils. While there are seven ELR+ CXC chemokines in the human genome, only four have been identified in the murine genome: keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)/CXCL1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)/CXCL2, LPS-induced chemokine (LIX)/CXCL5 and CXCL15/lungkine (Bozic et al. 1995;Rossi et al. 1999;Wolpe et al. 1989).

The CXC (or α) chemokines, such as Interleukin-8 (IL-8)/CXCL8, CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP10, CXCL11/ITAC and CXCL12/SDF1 have the potential to activate and attract neutrophils and T lymphocytes (Harris et al. 1996) while the C-C (or β) chemokines, such as MCP1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MIP-3α/CCL20 and MIP-3β/CCL19, are predominantly chemoattractants for multiple leukocyte subtypes, including monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and, to a lesser extent, neutrophils (Ajuebor et al. 1998). Neutrophil recruitment is regulated by a complex array of signals (Frangogiannis et al. 2002) including activated complement and the CXC family chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8 or CINC-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC/CXCL1/Gro-α), and lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC-chemokine (LIX/CXCL5) (Baggiolini 1998;Chandrasekar et al. 2001).


Ajuebor MN, Flower RJ, Hannon R, Christie M, Bowers K, Verity A, Perretti M (1998) Endogenous monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 recruits monocytes in the zymosan peritonitis model. J Leukoc Biol 63:108-116

Baggiolini M (1998) Chemokines and leukocyte traffic. Nature 392:565-568

Bozic CR, Kolakowski LF, Jr., Gerard NP, Garcia-Rodriguez C, von Uexkull-Guldenband C, Conklyn MJ, Breslow R, Showell HJ, Gerard C (1995) Expression and biologic characterization of the murine chemokine KC. J Immunol 154:6048-6057

Chandrasekar B, Smith JB, Freeman GL (2001) Ischemia-reperfusion of rat myocardium activates nuclear factor-KappaB and induces neutrophil infiltration via lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine. Circulation 103:2296-2302

Frangogiannis NG, Smith CW, Entman ML (2002) The inflammatory response in myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res 53:31-47

Harris JG, Flower RJ, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S, Wolitzky BA, Perretti M (1996) Relative contribution of the selectins in the neutrophil recruitment caused by the chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 221:692-696

Marra F (2002) Chemokines in liver inflammation and fibrosis. Front Biosci 7:d1899-d1914

Rossi DL, Hurst SD, Xu Y, Wang W, Menon S, Coffman RL, Zlotnik A (1999) Lungkine, a novel CXC chemokine, specifically expressed by lung bronchoepithelial cells. J Immunol 162:5490-5497

Wolpe SD, Sherry B, Juers D, Davatelis G, Yurt RW, Cerami A (1989) Identification and characterization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:612-616

[Page 1801]

Chemokines are thought to be responsible for recruiting inflammatory cells. They are actively involved in inflammation, tissue repair, and development of fibrosis.3 The chemokine family is divided into four main groups based on their structure and chemotactic activity for specific leukocyte populations: C, CC, CXC, and CX3C. The subset of CXC chemokines containing a glycine-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif, which immediately precedes the CXC residues, selectively targets neutrophils. Although there are seven ELR+ CXC chemokines in the human genome, only four have been identified in the murine genome: keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)/CXCL1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)/CXCL2, lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine (LIX)/CXCL5, and CXCL15/lungkine.4–6

The CXC (or α) chemokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8)/CXCL8, CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC,

[Page 1802]

and CXCL12/SDF1, have the potential to activate and attract neutrophils and T lymphocytes,7 whereas the CC (or β) chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MIP-3α/CCL20, and MIP-3β/CCL19, are predominantly chemoattractants for multiple leukocyte subtypes, including monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and, to a lesser extent, neutrophils.8 Neutrophil recruitment is regulated by a complex array of signals,9 including activated complement and the CXC family chemokines IL-8/CXCL8 or CINC-1, MIP-2/CXCL2, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC/CXCL1/Gro-α), and LIX/CXCL5.10,11


3. Marra F: Chemokines in liver inflammation and fibrosis. Front Biosci 2002, 7:d1899–d1914

4. Bozic CR, Kolakowski LF Jr, Gerard NP, Garcia-Rodriguez C, von Uexkull-Guldenband C, Conklyn MJ, Breslow R, Showell HJ, Gerard C: Expression and biologic characterization of the murine chemokine KC. J Immunol 1995, 154:6048–6057

5. Rossi DL, Hurst SD, Xu Y, Wang W, Menon S, Coffman RL, Zlotnik A: Lungkine, a novel CXC chemokine, specifically expressed by lung bronchoepithelial cells. J Immunol 1999, 162:5490–5497

6. Wolpe SD, Sherry B, Juers D, Davatelis G, Yurt RW, Cerami A: Identification and characterization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:612–616

7. Harris JG, Flower RJ, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S, Wolitzky BA, Perretti M: Relative contribution of the selectins in the neutrophil recruitment caused by the chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996, 221:692–696

8. Ajuebor MN, Flower RJ, Hannon R, Christie M, Bowers K, Verity A, Perretti M: Endogenous monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 recruits monocytes in the zymosan peritonitis model. J Leukoc Biol 1998, 63:108–116

9. Frangogiannis NG, Smith CW, Entman ML: The inflammatory response in myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res 2002, 53:31–47

10. Baggiolini M: Chemokines and leukocyte traffic. Nature 1998, 392:565–568

11. Chandrasekar B, Smith JB, Freeman GL: Ischemia-reperfusion of rat myocardium activates nuclear factor-KappaB and induces neutrophil infiltration via lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine. Circulation 2001, 103:2296–2302

Anmerkungen

According to Iam, pg. 95, the article Malik et al 2010 - note the ten co-authors - already existed, when the thesis was finished in 2009, and had already been "Submitted in Am. J. of path.". The paper was accepted for publication December 15, 2009.

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