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7 gesichtete, geschützte Fragmente: Plagiat

[1.] Ib/Fragment 001 17 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 5. May 2016, 15:01 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 11:57 (SleepyHollow02)
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As a complement to traditional linkage studies, association mapping or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping offers a powerful alternative approach for fine-scale mapping of flowring time in maize (Thornsberry et al. 2001), yield traits in barley (Kraakman et al. 2004), Iron deficiency in soybean (Wang et al. 2008), and disease resistance in rice (Garris et al. 2003), potato (Gebhardt et al. 2004; Simko et al. 2004) , corn (Szalma et al. 2005) and fusarium head blight resistance in barley (Massman et al. 2011). As a complement to traditional linkage studies, association mapping or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping offers a powerful alternative approach for fine-scale mapping of flowering time in maize (Thornsberry et al. 2001), yield traits in barley (Kraakman et al. 2004), Iron deficiency in soybean (Wang et al. 2008), and disease resistance in rice (Garris et al. 2003), potato (Gebhardt et al. 2004; Simko et al. 2004) and corn (Szalma et al. 2005).
Anmerkungen

Source is mentioned on p. 14 - but not here.

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(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

[2.] Ib/Fragment 003 11 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 15. December 2016, 20:15 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 12:29 (SleepyHollow02)
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1.3.1.1 World barley production and utilization

Barley is a cereal grain, early maturing grain with a high yield potential and widely adaptable crop (Harlan 1976). Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) ranks fourth in world cereal crop production and is used for, in order of importance, animal feed, brewing malts and human food. World barley production in 2010 was approximately 123.5 million metric tons (MMT) produced on 47.59 million hectares (MH). It is grown for animal feed, human food, and malt. However, in developing countries, most barley is grown in marginal environments, often on the fringes of deserts and steppes or at high elevations in the tropics, receiving modest or no inputs. This partly explains why yields there are nearly half of those in developed countries. Although barley is considered to be one of oldest cultivated cereal grains and was used extensively as a food in the past, only a small amount of barley is used for human consumption. In recent years there has been a growing research interest for the utilization of barley in a wide range of food applications (Bhatty, 1999; Bilgi and Çelik, 2004 and Köksel et al. 1999).

1.3.1.2 Taxonomic position and origin of barley

Linnaeus was the first to provide a botanical description of barley in his species Plantarium in 1753. Barley is a grass belonging to the family Poaceae, the tribe Triticeae and the genus Hordeum. There are 32 species, for a total of 45 taxa in the genus Hordeum that are separated into four sections (Bothmer 1992). The four sections proposed by Bothmer are as follows: Hordeum, Anisolepis, Critesion, and Stenostachys. The division of the genus into sections puts plants into groups that have similar morphological characteristics, similarities in ecology, [life forms and geographical area of origin.]


Bhatty RS (1999) The potential of hull-less barley. Cereal Chemistry, 76 (5) (1999), pp. 589–599

Bilgi B and Çelik S (2004) Solubility and emulsifying properties of barley protein concentrate. European Food Research and Technology, 218 pp. 437–441

Bothmer von R (1992) the wild species of Hordeum. In Shewry PR (ed) Barley genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Wallingford, CAB International, pp 2-17

Harlan JR (1976) Barley Hordeum vulgare (Gramineae--Triticinae) In Evolution in Crop Plants, ed N W Simmonds Longman, London, pp 93-8

Köksel H, Edney MJ and Özkaya B (1999) Barley bulgur: effect of processing and cooking on chemical composition. Journal of Cereal Science, 29 pp. 185–190

1.1.1 World barley production and utilization

Barley is a short season, early maturing grain with a high yield potential, and may be found on the fringes of agriculture in widely varying environments (Harlan 1976). World barley production in 2009 was approximately 155.1 million metric tons (MMT) produced on 54.13 million hectares (MH). Europe had the largest growing area of barley, harvesting 27.8 MH and producing 95.9 MMT in 2009, which was 61.8% of the total world barley production. It is grown for animal feed, human food, and malt. However, in developing countries, most barley is grown in marginal environments, often on the fringes of deserts and steppes or at high elevations in the tropics, receiving modest or no inputs. This partly explains

[page 4]

why yields there are nearly half of those in developed countries. Although barley is considered to be one of oldest cultivated cereal grains and was used extensively as a food in the past. Barley use as food in the European Community was even less (0.3%) than in the United States. The largest use for barley as a food was in Morocco (61%), Ethiopia (79%), China (62%), and India (73%) (Kent and Evers 1994).

1.1.2 Taxonomic position and origin of barley

Linnaeus was the first to provide a botanical description of barley in his Species Plantarium in 1753 (Bothmer and Jacobsen 1985). Barley is a grass belonging to the family Poaceae, the tribe Triticeae and the genus Hordeum. There are 32 species, for a total of 45 taxa in the genus Hordeum that are separated into four sections (Bothmer 1992). The four sections proposed by Bothmer are as follows: Hordeum, Anisolepis, Critesion, and Stenostachys. The division of the genus into sections puts plants into groups that have similar morphological characteristics, life forms, similarities in ecology, and geographical area of origin.


Bothmer R von and Jacobsen N (1985) Origin, taxonomy, and related species Rasmusson, D (ed), Barley ASA Monograph 26:19-56

Harlan JR (1976) Barley Hordeum vulgare (Gramineae--Triticinae) In Evolution in Crop Plants, ed N W Simmonds Longman, London, pp 93-8

Kent NL, Evers AD (1994) Kent‟s Technology of Cereals Elsevier Science:Oxford

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[3.] Ib/Fragment 004 23 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 21:13 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 12:08 (SleepyHollow02)
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It is particularly common in the Near East Fertile Crescent (Zohary 1969). Generally, wild barley is not tolerant to extreme low temperatures.

Wild barley has a quite similar morphology to cultivated 2-rowed barley. The most marked differences are wild barley’s brittle rachis and its hulled grain. Six-rowed barley has evolved during domestication, the trait being controlled by a single gene on chromosome 2 (Komatsuda et al. 1999, Tanno et al. 2002). Wild barley is the only wild Hordeum species that can produce fully fertile hybrids (with normal chromosome pairing and segregation in meiosis) when crossed with cultivated barley. Hybrids can also be formed in nature when these two occur at the same location (Asfaw & Von Bothmer 1990). Studies with wild and cultivated barley have reported that there is more variation within the wild than in the [cultivated barley (Saghai Maroof et al. 1995), although in some cases the opposite has been reported for some isozymes and mitochondrial DNA (Nevo, 1992).]


Asfaw Z, von Bothmer R (1990) Hybridization between landrace varieties of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) and the progenitor of barley (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum). Hereditas 112: 57-64

Komatsuda T, Li WB, Takaiwa F, Oka S (1999) High resolution map around the vrs1 locus controlling two- and six-rowed spike in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Genome 42: 248-253

Nevo E (1992) Origin, evolution, population genetics and resources for breeding of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in the Fertile Crescent. In: Barley, genetics, biochemtry, molecular biology and biotechology (ed. R. Shewry). C. A. B. International, Wallindford, Oxon, UK CAB International: 19-43

Saghai Maroof MA, Zhang Q, Biyashev R (1995) Comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in wild and cultivated barley. Genome 38: 298-306

Tanno K, Taketa S, Takeda K, Komatsuda T (2002) A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 104: 54-60

Zohary D (1969) The progenitors of wheat and barley in relation to domestication and agricultural dispersal in the old world. In Ucko PJ, Dimbleby GW (eds) The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. General Duckworth and Co. Ltd., London, pp 47-66. http://faostat.fao.org [sic!]

It is particularly common in the Near East Fertile Crescent (Zohary 1969). In general, wild barley is not tolerant to extreme low temperatures and is rarely found above 1500 m altitude.

[...]

Wild barley and cultivated 2-rowed barley have quite similar morphology. The most notable differences are wild barley’s brittle rachis and its hulled grain. Six-rowed barley

[page 3]

has evolved during domestication, the trait being controlled by a single gene on chromosome 2 (Komatsuda et al. 1999, Tanno et al. 2002). Wild barley subspecies spontaneum is the only wild Hordeum species that can produce fully fertile hybrids (with normal chromosome pairing and segregation in meiosis) when crossed with cultivated barley. Hybrids can also be formed in nature when these two occur at the same location (Asfaw & Von Bothmer 1990).

Studies with wild and cultivated barley have shown that there is more variation within the wild than in the cultivated barley (Saghai Maroof et al. 1995), although in some cases the opposite has been reported for some isozymes and mitochondrial DNA (Nevo, 1992).


Asfaw Z, von Bothmer R (1990) Hybridization between landrace varieties of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the progenitor of barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). Hereditas 112: 57-64.

Komatsuda T, Li WB, Takaiwa F, Oka S (1999) High resolution map around the vrs1 locus controlling two- and six-rowed spike in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Genome 42: 248-253.

Nevo E (1992) Origin, evolution, population genetics and resources for breeding of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in the Fertile Crescent. In: Barley, genetics, biochemtry, molecular biology and biotechology (ed. R. Shewry). C. A. B. International, Wallindford, Oxon, UK CAB International: 19-43.

Saghai Maroof MA, Zhang Q, Biyashev R (1995) Comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in wild and cultivated barley. Genome 38: 298-306

Tanno K, Taketa S, Takeda K, Komatsuda T (2002) A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 104: 54-60.

Zohary D (1969) The progenitors of wheat and barley in relation to domestication and agricultural dispersal in the old world. In Ucko PJ, Dimbleby GW (eds) The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. General Duckworth and Co. Ltd., London, pp 47-66.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given. The URL given after Zohary 1969 does not contain the text.

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(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[4.] Ib/Fragment 009 18 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 20:52 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 13. July 2014, 06:09 (SleepyHollow02)
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The main breeding objectives are high yield, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, malting cultivars need to have high malting quality, which includes plump kernels, rapid and uniform germination, and optimal values for protein content and enzymatic activity (Kraakman 2005).

Kraakman ATW (2005) Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis. PhD thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands

The main breeding objectives are high yield, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, malting cultivars need to have high malting quality, which includes plump kernels, rapid and uniform germination, and optimal values for protein content and enzymatic activity (Kraakman 2005).

Kraakman ATW (2005) Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis. PhD thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

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(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

[5.] Ib/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 20:50 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 21:15 (SleepyHollow02)
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[And (5) based on information gained through population structure, correlation of phenotypic and genotypic/haplotypic data with the application of an appropriate statistical approach that reveals, consequently a specific gene(s) controlling a] QTL of interest can be cloned using the marker tags and annotated for an exact biological function. Association mapping offers three main advantages: increased mapping resolution, reduced research time, and greater allele numbers (Reich et al. 2001).

Association mapping, also known as linkage disequilibrium mapping, is a relatively new and promising genetic method for complex trait dissection. Association mapping has the promise of higher mapping resolution through exploitation of historical recombination events at the population level that may enable gene level mapping on non-model organisms where linkage based approaches would not be feasible (Varshney and Tuberosa 2007).


Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S et al. (2001) Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature, vol. 411, No. 6834: 199–204

Varshney RK and Tuberosa R (2007) Application of linkage disequilibrium and association mapping in crop plants. Genomics Approaches and Platforms, Vol 1: 97 – 119

And (5) based on information gained through population structure, correlation of phenotypic and genotypic/haplotypic data with the application of an appropriate statistical approach that reveals, consequently a specific gene(s) controlling a QTL of interest can be cloned using the marker tags and annotated for an exact biological function.

[...]

Compared to linkage mapping in traditional bioparental populations, association mapping offers three main advantages: increased mapping resolution, reduced research time, and greater allele numbers (Reich et al. 2001).

[page 20]

Association mapping, also known as linkage disequilibrium mapping, is a relatively new and promising genetic method for complex trait dissection. Association mapping has the promise of higher mapping resolution through exploitation of historical recombination events at the population level that may enable gene level mapping on non-model organisms where linkage based approaches would not be feasible (Varshney and Tuberosa. 2007).


Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S, Ireland J, Sabeti PC, Richter DJ, Lavery T, Kouyoumjian R, Farhadian S, Ward R, Lander ES (2001) Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature, vol. 411, No. 6834: 199–204

Varshney RK, Tuberosa R (2007) Application of linkage disequilibrium and association mapping in crop plants. Genomics Approaches and Platforms, Vol 1: 97 – 119.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

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(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

[6.] Ib/Fragment 081 06 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 15. December 2016, 20:42 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 19:04 (SleepyHollow02)
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Association mapping of a trait is to identify chromosomal regions that contain genes affecting the trait. The discovery of dense polymorphic markers covering the entire genome provides us an opportunity to localize these regions by trying to find the markers closest to the genes of interest.

[...]

In the present study, 108 accessions of wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and 7 landraces (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) from the ICBB core collection (gene banks in Gatersleben and Braunschweig). 21 spring barley cultivars representative for the breeding pool of spring barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) in the North Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, (Reetz and Léon 2004) and 4 common cultivars (Scarlett, Lerche, Barke and Thuringia). The seeds of these cultivars were provided by the Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), chair of plant breeding.


Reetz T, Leon J (2004) Die Erhaltung der genetischen Diversität bei Getreide. Auswahl einer Gersten Core-Collection aufgrund geographischer Herkunft, Abstammung, Morphologie, Qualität, Anbaubedeutung und DANN Markeranalysen. Institut für Pflanzenbau Professur für Speziellen Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzüchtung

Association mapping of a trait is to identify chromosomal regions that contain genes affecting the trait. The discovery of dense polymorphic markers covering the entire genome provides us an opportunity to localize these regions by trying to find the markers closest to the genes of interest.

[...]

In the current study, 98 accessions of wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from the ICBB core collection (gene banks in Gatersleben and Braunschweig) and 21 spring barley cultivars representative for the breeding pool of spring barley in the North Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, (Reetz and Leon 2004). These cultivars were provided by the Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), chair of plant breeding.


Reetz T, Leon J (2004) Die Erhaltung der genetischen Diversität bei Getreide. Auswahl einer Gersten Core-Collection aufgrund geographischer Herkunft, Abstammung, Morphologie, Qualität, Anbaubedeutung und DANN Markeranalysen. Institut für Pflanzenbau Professur für Speziellen Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzüchtung.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

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(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[7.] Ib/Fragment 083 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 15. December 2016, 20:32 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 18:54 (SleepyHollow02)
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In parallel, DNA has been extracted from 10 mg freeze drying of each accession by using “Kit” procedure according DNeasy Plant Handbook 07/2006. The produced DNA of the accessions was sent to Australia and genotyped by using 1081 DArT markers (YarralumlaACT, Australia). The phenotypic data were analyzed each season separately as one way ANOVA using Proc GLM procedure and the Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between traits under disease infection condition were calculated by SAS version 9.2 (SAS institute 2008). PCA was carried out by using SAS 9.2 program PROC PRINCOMP, for study of the population structure. The significance for PCA was evaluated using Franklin et al. (1995) method. The relative kinship coefficients (K matrix) among all pairs of accessions were calculated using 895 DArT markers data by “SPAGeDi-1.3d” Software to calculate the pair-wise kinship coefficients for all accessions. In parallel, DNA has been extracted from 10 mg freeze drying of each accession by using “Kit” procedure according DNeasy Plant Handbook 07/2006. The produced DNA of the accessions was sent to Australia and genotyped by using 1081 DArT markers (YarralumlaACT, Australia). The phenotypic data were analysed each season separately as one way ANOVA using Proc GLM procedure and the Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between traits under well-watered and drought stress condition were calculated by SAS version 9.1 (SAS institute 2003). [...] The relative kinship coefficients (K matrix) among all pairs of accessions were calculated using 1081 DArT markers data by TASSEL Software version 2.0.1 to calculate the pair-wise kinship coefficients for all accessions.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

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