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4 gesichtete, geschützte Fragmente: Plagiat

[1.] Ib/Fragment 001 17 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 5. May 2016, 15:01 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 11:57 (SleepyHollow02)
Fragment, Gesichtet, Ib, Mohamed 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 1, Zeilen: 17-22
Quelle: Mohamed 2009
Seite(n): 1, Zeilen: 22 ff.
As a complement to traditional linkage studies, association mapping or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping offers a powerful alternative approach for fine-scale mapping of flowring time in maize (Thornsberry et al. 2001), yield traits in barley (Kraakman et al. 2004), Iron deficiency in soybean (Wang et al. 2008), and disease resistance in rice (Garris et al. 2003), potato (Gebhardt et al. 2004; Simko et al. 2004) , corn (Szalma et al. 2005) and fusarium head blight resistance in barley (Massman et al. 2011). As a complement to traditional linkage studies, association mapping or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping offers a powerful alternative approach for fine-scale mapping of flowering time in maize (Thornsberry et al. 2001), yield traits in barley (Kraakman et al. 2004), Iron deficiency in soybean (Wang et al. 2008), and disease resistance in rice (Garris et al. 2003), potato (Gebhardt et al. 2004; Simko et al. 2004) and corn (Szalma et al. 2005).
Anmerkungen

Source is mentioned on p. 14 - but not here.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

[2.] Ib/Fragment 004 23 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 21:13 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 12:08 (SleepyHollow02)
Fragment, Gesichtet, Ib, Mohamed 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 4, Zeilen: 23 ff.
Quelle: Mohamed 2009
Seite(n): 2, 3, Zeilen: 2: 26 ff.; 3: 1 ff.
It is particularly common in the Near East Fertile Crescent (Zohary 1969). Generally, wild barley is not tolerant to extreme low temperatures.

Wild barley has a quite similar morphology to cultivated 2-rowed barley. The most marked differences are wild barley’s brittle rachis and its hulled grain. Six-rowed barley has evolved during domestication, the trait being controlled by a single gene on chromosome 2 (Komatsuda et al. 1999, Tanno et al. 2002). Wild barley is the only wild Hordeum species that can produce fully fertile hybrids (with normal chromosome pairing and segregation in meiosis) when crossed with cultivated barley. Hybrids can also be formed in nature when these two occur at the same location (Asfaw & Von Bothmer 1990). Studies with wild and cultivated barley have reported that there is more variation within the wild than in the [cultivated barley (Saghai Maroof et al. 1995), although in some cases the opposite has been reported for some isozymes and mitochondrial DNA (Nevo, 1992).]


Asfaw Z, von Bothmer R (1990) Hybridization between landrace varieties of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) and the progenitor of barley (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum). Hereditas 112: 57-64

Komatsuda T, Li WB, Takaiwa F, Oka S (1999) High resolution map around the vrs1 locus controlling two- and six-rowed spike in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Genome 42: 248-253

Nevo E (1992) Origin, evolution, population genetics and resources for breeding of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in the Fertile Crescent. In: Barley, genetics, biochemtry, molecular biology and biotechology (ed. R. Shewry). C. A. B. International, Wallindford, Oxon, UK CAB International: 19-43

Saghai Maroof MA, Zhang Q, Biyashev R (1995) Comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in wild and cultivated barley. Genome 38: 298-306

Tanno K, Taketa S, Takeda K, Komatsuda T (2002) A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 104: 54-60

Zohary D (1969) The progenitors of wheat and barley in relation to domestication and agricultural dispersal in the old world. In Ucko PJ, Dimbleby GW (eds) The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. General Duckworth and Co. Ltd., London, pp 47-66. http://faostat.fao.org [sic!]

It is particularly common in the Near East Fertile Crescent (Zohary 1969). In general, wild barley is not tolerant to extreme low temperatures and is rarely found above 1500 m altitude.

[...]

Wild barley and cultivated 2-rowed barley have quite similar morphology. The most notable differences are wild barley’s brittle rachis and its hulled grain. Six-rowed barley

[page 3]

has evolved during domestication, the trait being controlled by a single gene on chromosome 2 (Komatsuda et al. 1999, Tanno et al. 2002). Wild barley subspecies spontaneum is the only wild Hordeum species that can produce fully fertile hybrids (with normal chromosome pairing and segregation in meiosis) when crossed with cultivated barley. Hybrids can also be formed in nature when these two occur at the same location (Asfaw & Von Bothmer 1990).

Studies with wild and cultivated barley have shown that there is more variation within the wild than in the cultivated barley (Saghai Maroof et al. 1995), although in some cases the opposite has been reported for some isozymes and mitochondrial DNA (Nevo, 1992).


Asfaw Z, von Bothmer R (1990) Hybridization between landrace varieties of Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the progenitor of barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). Hereditas 112: 57-64.

Komatsuda T, Li WB, Takaiwa F, Oka S (1999) High resolution map around the vrs1 locus controlling two- and six-rowed spike in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Genome 42: 248-253.

Nevo E (1992) Origin, evolution, population genetics and resources for breeding of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in the Fertile Crescent. In: Barley, genetics, biochemtry, molecular biology and biotechology (ed. R. Shewry). C. A. B. International, Wallindford, Oxon, UK CAB International: 19-43.

Saghai Maroof MA, Zhang Q, Biyashev R (1995) Comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in wild and cultivated barley. Genome 38: 298-306

Tanno K, Taketa S, Takeda K, Komatsuda T (2002) A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 104: 54-60.

Zohary D (1969) The progenitors of wheat and barley in relation to domestication and agricultural dispersal in the old world. In Ucko PJ, Dimbleby GW (eds) The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. General Duckworth and Co. Ltd., London, pp 47-66.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given. The URL given after Zohary 1969 does not contain the text.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[3.] Ib/Fragment 009 18 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 20:52 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 13. July 2014, 06:09 (SleepyHollow02)
Fragment, Gesichtet, Ib, KomplettPlagiat, Mohamed 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 9, Zeilen: 18-21
Quelle: Mohamed 2009
Seite(n): 5, Zeilen: 3-6
The main breeding objectives are high yield, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, malting cultivars need to have high malting quality, which includes plump kernels, rapid and uniform germination, and optimal values for protein content and enzymatic activity (Kraakman 2005).

Kraakman ATW (2005) Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis. PhD thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands

The main breeding objectives are high yield, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, malting cultivars need to have high malting quality, which includes plump kernels, rapid and uniform germination, and optimal values for protein content and enzymatic activity (Kraakman 2005).

Kraakman ATW (2005) Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis. PhD thesis Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

[4.] Ib/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 14. July 2016, 20:50 WiseWoman
Erstellt: 12. July 2014, 21:15 (SleepyHollow02)
Fragment, Gesichtet, Ib, KomplettPlagiat, Mohamed 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 1-8
Quelle: Mohamed 2009
Seite(n): 19, 20, Zeilen: 19: 18 ff.; 20: 1 ff.
[And (5) based on information gained through population structure, correlation of phenotypic and genotypic/haplotypic data with the application of an appropriate statistical approach that reveals, consequently a specific gene(s) controlling a] QTL of interest can be cloned using the marker tags and annotated for an exact biological function. Association mapping offers three main advantages: increased mapping resolution, reduced research time, and greater allele numbers (Reich et al. 2001).

Association mapping, also known as linkage disequilibrium mapping, is a relatively new and promising genetic method for complex trait dissection. Association mapping has the promise of higher mapping resolution through exploitation of historical recombination events at the population level that may enable gene level mapping on non-model organisms where linkage based approaches would not be feasible (Varshney and Tuberosa 2007).


Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S et al. (2001) Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature, vol. 411, No. 6834: 199–204

Varshney RK and Tuberosa R (2007) Application of linkage disequilibrium and association mapping in crop plants. Genomics Approaches and Platforms, Vol 1: 97 – 119

And (5) based on information gained through population structure, correlation of phenotypic and genotypic/haplotypic data with the application of an appropriate statistical approach that reveals, consequently a specific gene(s) controlling a QTL of interest can be cloned using the marker tags and annotated for an exact biological function.

[...]

Compared to linkage mapping in traditional bioparental populations, association mapping offers three main advantages: increased mapping resolution, reduced research time, and greater allele numbers (Reich et al. 2001).

[page 20]

Association mapping, also known as linkage disequilibrium mapping, is a relatively new and promising genetic method for complex trait dissection. Association mapping has the promise of higher mapping resolution through exploitation of historical recombination events at the population level that may enable gene level mapping on non-model organisms where linkage based approaches would not be feasible (Varshney and Tuberosa. 2007).


Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S, Ireland J, Sabeti PC, Richter DJ, Lavery T, Kouyoumjian R, Farhadian S, Ward R, Lander ES (2001) Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature, vol. 411, No. 6834: 199–204

Varshney RK, Tuberosa R (2007) Application of linkage disequilibrium and association mapping in crop plants. Genomics Approaches and Platforms, Vol 1: 97 – 119.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann

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