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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 031 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 21:41:56 Graf Isolan
Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis

The slower hormonal system to be activated during the stress response is the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Figure 1.5). Unlike the sympathetic-adrenal medulla system (SAMS), which instantly initiates an autonomic response via direct neural stimulation of organs (followed and reinforced by epinephrine release), the HPA stress response relies exclusively on the relatively slower action of adrenal hormones to exert their effect (Sapolsky, 1998). HPA activity thus maintains and builds upon the sympathetic response. Firstly, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus releases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), which in turn stimulates the pituitary to release adrenocorticotropin hormone, or ACTH into the bloodstream (for review, see Lovallo & Thomas, 2000; Sapolsky, Romero & Munck, 2000). ACTH makes its way to the adrenal glands, causing the adrenal cortex to release adrenocortical hormones, which are steroids (i.e., lipids derived from cholesterol). There are three classes of hormones produced and released from the adrenal cortex; mineralocorticoids (which help to maintain electrolyte balance), sex hormones, and glucocorticoids (the most important of these in humans is cortisol, while in rodents it is corticosterone; Sherwood, 1997).


Lovallo, W.R. & Thomas, T.L. (2000). In: Cacioppo, J.T., Tassinary & L.G., Berntson, G. (Eds.), Handbook of Psychophysiology (pp. 342–367). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sherwood, L. (1997). Human Physiology: from Cells to Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Sapolsky (1998). Why zebras don’t get ulcers. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Sapolsky, R.L., Romero, M., & Munck, A.U. (2000). How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? Integrating Permissive, Suppressive, Stimulatory, and Preparative Actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89.

HPA

The second hormonal system to be activated during the stress response is the Hypothalamus-Pituary-Adrenal cortex (HPA) axis. Unlike the SAMS, which instantly initiates an autonomic response via direct neural stimulation of organs (followed and reinforced by epinephrine release), the HPA stress response relies exclusively on the relatively slower action of adrenal hormones to exert their effect (Sapolsky, 1998). HPA activity thus maintains and builds upon the sympathetic response. The hypothalamus first releases Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF), which in turn stimulates the pituitary to release Adrenocorticotropin Hormone, or ACTH into the bloodstream. ACTH makes its way to the adrenal glands, causing the adrenal cortex to release adrenocortical hormones, which are steroids (lipids derived from cholesterol). There are three classes of hormones produced and released from the adrenal cortex: mineralocorticoids (which help to maintain electrolyte balance), sex hormones, and glucocorticoids (the most important of these in humans is cortisol, while in rodents it is corticosterone) (Sherwood, 1997).


Sapolsky (1998). Why zebras don’t get ulcers. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Sherwood, L. (1997). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Anmerkungen

Taken nearly verbatim without the source being named.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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