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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Jm/Fragment 036 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-17 21:44:30 Hindemith
Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 36, Zeilen: 1-21
Quelle: Beckner 2004
Seite(n): 13-14, 15, 28, Zeilen: 13:28-29 - 14:1-2; 15:15-20; 28:1ff
[Given that MRs are largely occupied] during rest and GRs become activated during stress, most researchers have concluded that activation of GRs, rather than MRs, are responsible for stress-related brain and behavioral changes (see Roozendaal, 1999).

Thus stress sets in motion a number of physiological responses, including sympathetic and HPA activation and the release of stress hormones. These hormones exert their action in the brain by activating corticosteroid receptors. The distribution of these receptors in structures involved in memory, particularly the hippocampus (which has the largest concentration of receptors) is an important link in understanding the connection between glucocorticoids and cognition.

1.3.3 Stress & Memory: Animal Studies

The animal literature on stress and cognition is vast, providing robust evidence that stress or administered corticosteroids affect both associative learning and spatial memory. Stress manipulations include social stress (dominance struggle), physical restraint, shock, and certain stressful tasks, while corticosteroid administration involves either injection, implanted hormone “beads,” or intracerebral administration. Investigators have examined the modulatory effects of corticosteroids following adrenalectomy (or other lesion procedure), and the direct effects of administered hormones or stress in healthy animals. Researchers have also experimented with the timing and dose of the manipulation. Together, these studies provide a complex picture, but suggest a facilitative effect of moderate doses of corticosteroids (or moderate stress) on encoding and consolidation, and possibly an adverse effect on retrieval. Given current limitations, only human studies will be discussed.


Roozendaal, B. (1999). Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory consolidation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 213-238.

[Page 13]

Because MRs are largely occupied during rest and GRs become activated during stress, most researchers have concluded that activation of GRs, rather

[Page 14]

than MRs, are responsible for stress-related brain and behavioral changes (see Roozendaal, 1999).

[Page 15]

Thus stress sets in motion a number of physiological responses, including sympathetic and HPA activation and the release of stress hormones. These hormones exert their action in the brain by activating corticosteroid receptors. The distribution of these receptors in structures involved in memory, particularly the hippocampus (which has the largest concentration of receptors) is an important link in understanding the connection between glucocorticoids and cognition.

[Page 28]

4. Stress & Memory: Animal Studies

Introduction

The animal literature on stress and cognition is vast, providing robust evidence that stress or admininstered [sic] corticosteroids affect both associative learning and spatial memory. Stress manipulations include social stress (dominance struggle), physical restraint, shock, and certain stressful tasks, while corticosteroid administration involves either injection, implanted hormone “beads,” or intracerebral administration. Investigators have examined the modulatory effects of corticosteroids following adrenalectomy (or other lesion procedure), and the direct effects of administered hormones or stress in healthy animals. Researchers have also experimented with the timing and dose of the manipulation. Together, these studies provide a complex picture, but suggest a facilitative effect of moderate doses of corticosteroids (or moderate stress) on encoding and consolidation, and possibly an adverse effect on retrieval.


Roozendaal, B. (2000). Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory consolidation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 213-238.

Anmerkungen

A collage of original pieces from the PhD-thesis of Beckner (2004). The source is never named though the pieces are taken verbatim, with even the emphasized words being mostly the same.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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