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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Jm/Fragment 037 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-17 20:49:31 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 37, Zeilen: 2-14
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 518, Zeilen: right col. 1ff
Although research clearly demonstrates that chronically elevated cortisol (from disease, corticosteroid treatment, or aging) is associated with impairments in declarative memory (Lupien et al., 2004, 1998; Martignoni et al., 1992), evidence for acute effects is mixed. Early experimental studies using stress induction or single-dose glucocorticoid administration showed an impairing effect of acutely elevated cortisol on verbal declarative memory (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Newcomer et al., 1994; Wolf et al., 2001; Wolkowitz et al., 1990). However, recent studies investigating acute effects of cortisol on word recall either failed to replicate these findings by using cortisol administration (Hsu et al., 2003) or psychosocial stress (Wolf et al., 2001) or obtained opposite findings (Domes et al., 2002).

One explanation for these discrepancies, according to Beckner and colleagues (2006), may be due to differences in dose levels of glucocorticoids. Both animal and human data suggest an inverted U-shaped function between glucocorticoids and memory (see Lupien & McEwen, 1997, for a review).


Beckner, V.E., Tucker, D.M., Delville, Y., & Mohr, D.C. (2006). Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval. Behavioural Neuroscience, 120, 518-527.

Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Reichwald, U., & Hautzinger, M. (2002). Hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: high responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 843.

Hsu, F.C., Garside, M.J., Massey, A.E., & McAllister-Williams, R.H. (2003). Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology , 167, 431-442.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O.T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D.H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Lupien, S.J., de Leon, M., de Santi, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N.P., Thakur, M., McEwen, B.S., Hauger, R.L., & Meaney, M.J. (1998). Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 3–4.

Lupien, S.J., DeLeon, M., DeSanti, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N.P.V., McEwen, B.S., Hauger, R.L., & Meaney, M.J. (1998). Longitudinal increase in cortisol during human aging predicts hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 69-73.

Martignoni, E., Costa, A., & Sinforiani, E. (1992). The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: cognitive implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 343-354.

Newcomer, J.W., Craft, S., Hershey, T., Askins, K., & Bardgett, M.E. (1994). Glucocorticoidinduced impairment in declarative memory performance in adult humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2047–2053.

Wolf, O.T., Convit, A., McHugh, P.F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E.L., De Santi, S., McEwen, B.S., & de Leon, M.J. (2001a). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioural Neuroscience, 105, 1002-1011.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., McEwen, B.S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001b). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

Although research clearly demonstrates that chronically elevated cortisol (from disease, corticosteroid treatment, or aging) is associated with impairments in declarative memory (Lupien et al., 1998; Martignoni et al., 1992; Starkman & Schteingart, 1981; Wolkowitz, Lupien, Bigler, Levin, & Canick, 2004), evidence for acute effects is mixed. Early experimental studies using a stress induction or single-dose glucocorticoid administration showed an impairing effect of acutely elevated cortisol on verbal declarative memory (Kirschbaum, Wolf, May, Wippich, & Hellhammer, 1996; Newcomer, Craft, Hershey, Askins, & Bardgett, 1994; Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, McEwen, & Kirschbaum, 2001; Wolkowitz et al., 1990). However, recent studies looking at acute effects of cortisol on word recall either failed to replicate these findings by using cortisol administration (Hsu, Garside, Massey, & McAllister-Williams, 2003) or psychosocial stress (Wolf, Convit, et al., 2001) or obtained opposite findings (Domes, Heinrichs, Reichwald, & Hautzinger, 2002). One explanation for these discrepancies may be due to differences in dose: Animal and human data suggest an inverted U-shaped function between glucocorticoids and memory (see Lupien & McEwen, 1997, for a review).

Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Reichwald, U., & Hautzinger, M. (2002). Hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: High responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 843– 853.

Hsu, F. C., Garside, M. J., Massey, A. E., & McAllister-Williams, R. H. (2003). Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 167, 431–442.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483.

Lupien, S. J., de Leon, M., de Santi, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N. P., et al. (1998). Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 69–73.

Lupien, S. J., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: Integration of animal and human model studies. Brain Research Reviews, 24, 1–27.

Martignoni, E., Costa, A., Sinforiani, E., Liuzzi, A., Chiodini, P., Mauri, M., et al. (1992). The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: Cognitive implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 343–354.

Newcomer, J. W., Craft, S., Hershey, T., Askins, K., & Bardgett, M. E. (1994). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment in declarative memory performance in adult humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2047–2053.

Starkman, M. N., & Schteingart, D. E. (1981). Neuropsychiatric manifestations of patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Relationship to cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Archives of Internal Medicine, 141, 215–219.

Wolf, O. T., Convit, A., McHugh, P. F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E. L., De Santi, S., et al. (2001). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 1002–1011.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711–720.

Wolkowitz, O. M., Reus, V. I., Weingartner, H., Thompson, K., Breier, A., Doran, A., et al. (1990). Cognitive effects of corticosteroids. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1297–1303.

Anmerkungen

There is no entry for Wolkowitz et al. (1990) in the list of references in Jm.

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The source of this paragraph is mentioned in passing in the second paragraph.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[2.] Jm/Fragment 037 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 22:07:09 Graf Isolan
Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 37, Zeilen: 14-23
Quelle: Beckner 2004
Seite(n): 49, 50, Zeilen: 49: 25ff; 50: 1-3, 15-20
Studies with corticosteroid receptor agonists and antagonists suggest that low levels of corticosteroids (in which MRs are fully occupied) may influence attention to encoding of relevant stimuli, while increasing levels associated with stress (in which GRs start to become occupied) act on consolidation processes (with moderate doses facilitating memory and very high doses impairing it). Thus the majority of human studies, in attempting to approximate moderate stress, may be raising cortisol levels beyond the peak of the inverted-U, thereby resulting in detrimental effects on memory. Animal studies showing a facilitative effect of stress-levels of corticosterone on memory may instead be achieving the peak for those species. Clearly more research on dose-dependent effects in humans is needed to shed light on this issue. Studies with corticosteroid receptor agonists and antagonists suggest that low levels of corticosteroids (in which mineralocorticoid receptors are fully occupied) may influence attention and encoding of

[page 50]

relevant stimuli, while increasing levels associated with stress (in which glucocorticoid receptors start to become occupied) act on consolidation processes (with moderate doses facilitating memory and very high doses impairing it).

[...]

Thus the majority of human studies reviewed above, in attempting to approximate moderate stress, may be raising cortisol levels beyond the peak of the inverted-U, resulting in detrimental effects on memory. Animal studies showing a facilitative effect of stress-levels of corticosterone on memory may instead be achieving the peak for those species. Clearly more research on dose-dependent effects in humans is needed to shed light on this issue.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1


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