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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 039 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 07:25:28 Graf Isolan
Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 39, Zeilen: 1-8
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 519, Zeilen: left col. 24-35
However, the findings for consolidation of verbal information are weak. One study suggested a facilitative effect of administered cortisol on consolidation of word recall when tested after a delay (Abercrombie et al., 2003), whereas others have found no difference between cortisol administration (de Quervain, Roozendaal, Nitsch, McGaugh & Hock, 2000) or stress (Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, Reischies & Kirschbaum, 2002) and controls. Thus, there is evidence for a facilitative effect of stress and cortisol on the consolidation of visual information, but little for verbal information.

Abercrombie, H.C., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Rosenkranz, M.A., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505-516.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., & Hock C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N., Hellhammer, D.H., Reischies, F.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned four weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59-64.

It is interesting to note, however, that of the several studies that have examined verbal memory by using the methodology described above, the findings for consolidation of verbal information are weak. One study suggested a facilitative effect of administered cortisol on consolidation of word recall when tested after a delay (Abercrombie et al., 2003), whereas others have found no difference between cortisol administration (de Quervain, Roozendaal, Nitsch, McGaugh, & Hock, 2000) or stress (Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, Reischies, & Kirschbaum, 2002) and controls. Thus, there is evidence for a facilitative effect of stress and cortisol on the consolidation of visual information, but little for verbal information.

Abercrombie, H. C., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Rosenkranz, M. A., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505–516.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313– 314.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., Reischies, F. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59–64.

Anmerkungen

Nothing is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[2.] Jm/Fragment 039 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 22:07:04 Graf Isolan
Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Seite(n): 51, Zeilen: 6ff
These studies provide stronger evidence of encoding and consolidation effects of stress, although the findings are mixed. While one study found a detrimental effect on verbal memory (Lupien et al., 1995), several others found a facilitative effect on visual memory (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Abercrombie et al., 2003; Cahill et al., 2003). These studies (with the exception of Cahill et al., 2003), however, continue to conflate encoding and consolidation processes. Studies examining attentional effects have generally found that stress and cortisol interfere with selective attention and working memory. Furthermore, none of these studies manipulated either stress or cortisol levels on the day of memory testing in order to determine retrieval effects. Only one human study (de Quervain et al., 2000) and two animal studies (de Quervain et al., 1998; Oitzl & De Kloet, 1992) have directly tested for the effects of stress during each stage of memory formation and recall. These researchers found evidence of impaired retrieval. These studies provide stronger evidence of encoding and consolidation effects of stress, although the findings are mixed. While one study found a detrimental effect on verbal memory (Lupien et al., 1995), several others found a facilitative effect on visual memory (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Abercrombie et al., 2003; Cahill et al., 2003). These studies (with the exception of Cahill et al. 2003), however, continue to conflate encoding and consolidation processes. Studies examining attentional effects have generally found stress and cortisol to interfere with selective attention and working memory. In addition, none of the studies cited above manipulated stress or cortisol levels on the day of memory testing to investigate retrieval effects. Only one human study (de Quervain et al., 2000) and two animal studies (de Quervain et al., 1998; Oitzl & De Kloet, 1992) have directly tested for the effects of stress during each stage of memory formation and recall. These researchers found evidence of impaired retrieval.
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[3.] Jm/Fragment 039 21 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 21:55:52 Graf Isolan
Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 519, Zeilen: left col. 36-42
Researchers have also recently attempted to parse the effects of glucocorticoids on retrieval processes separate from learning and consolidation, and findings provide some support for Roozendaal’s (2002) theory that retrieval is impaired by stress. These studies present the stimuli to be learned in the first session under basal conditions and then apply the stressor or glucocorticoid just before retrieval on a subsequent session.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory; Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Researchers have also recently attempted to parse the effects of glucocorticoids on retrieval processes separate from learning and consolidation, and findings provide some support for Roozendaal’s (2002) theory that retrieval is impaired by stress. These studies present the stimuli to be learned in the first session under basal conditions and then apply the stressor or glucocorticoid just before retrieval on a subsequent session.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578–595.

Anmerkungen

Though identical, the source is named only in the next paragraph, on the following page without apparent relation to the text documented here.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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