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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 040 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 21:53:59 Graf Isolan
Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 40, Zeilen: 1-8
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 519, Zeilen: left col. 42-52
[Using this type of] design, de Quervain, Roozendaal and McGaugh (1998) found that both shock and glucocorticoids administered just before retention testing impaired retrieval of spatial information in rats. Two pharmacological studies in humans have also shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on the retrieval of words learned 24 hr before (de Quervain et al., 2000, 2003), and Kuhlmann, Piel and Wolf (2005) similarly found that a psychosocial stressor impaired recall of both positive and negative (but not neutral) words. Wolf and colleagues (2002), however, found no effect of a stressor on retrieval of words learned 4 weeks earlier compared with controls.

de Quervain, D.J., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J.L., Berthold, T., Nitsch, R.M., Buck, A., Roozendaal, B., & Hock, C. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1296–1302.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J.L. (1998). Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Nature, 394, 787-790.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., & Hock C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N., Hellhammer, D.H., Reischies, F.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned four weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59-64.

Using this type of design, de Quervain, Roozendaal, and McGaugh (1998) found that both shock and glucocorticoids administered just before retention testing impaired retrieval of spatial information in rats. Two pharmacological studies in humans have also shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on the retrieval of words learned 24 hr before (de Quervain et al., 2000, 2003), and Kuhlmann, Piel, and Wolf (2005) similarly found that a psychosocial stressor impaired recall of both positive and negative (but not neutral) words. Wolf et al. (2002), however, found no effect of a stressor on retrieval of words learned 4 weeks earlier compared with controls.

de Quervain, D. J., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J. L., Berthold, T., et al. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1296–1302.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998, August 20). Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Nature, 394, 787–790.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313–314.

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O. T. (2005). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., Reischies, F. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59–64.

Anmerkungen

Word for word from the paper by Beckner et al. (2006). Nothing has been marked as a citation. Starting the next paragraph the source is named for the first time, though in that paragraph the text presented is from the original thesis of Beckner (2004). Thus again the origin of texts is obscured.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 040 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 21:42:03 Graf Isolan
BauernOpfer, Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 40, Zeilen: 9-20
Quelle: Beckner 2004
Seite(n): vii, 103, Zeilen: vii:14-16; 103:8-16
Beckner and colleagues (2006) recently addressed these discrepant findings by attempting to parse the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on these separate memory processes by varying the timing of the stressor. The psychosocial stressor (preparation for an expected public speech) was applied at three different time points (and compared with no-stress controls); prior to stimulus presentation and initial learning, immediately after stimulus presentation/learning, and just before memory testing 48 hours later. Both verbal and visual memory retention was measured using a film stimulus. Specifically, it was hypothesized that stress would exert a facilitative effect on encoding and consolidation processes and a detrimental effect on retrieval. While De Quervain and colleagues (2000) have used a similar paradigm using glucocorticoid administration as the manipulation, this study was the first to do so employing a psychological stressor to investigate the effects of stress and endogeneously-released cortisol on each memory phase in a human sample.

Beckner, V.E., Tucker, D.M., Delville, Y., & Mohr, D.C. (2006). Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval. Behavioural Neuroscience, 120, 518-527.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., & Hock C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

[Page vii]

The purpose of the current study was to parse the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on these separate memory processes by varying the timing of the stressor.

[Page 103]

The psychosocial stressor (preparation for an expected public speech) was applied at 3 different time points (and compared with no-stress controls): prior to stimulus presentation and initial learning, immediately after stimuli presentation/learning, and just before memory testing 48 hours later. Specifically, it was hypothesized that stress would have a facilitative effect on encoding and consolidation processes and a detrimental effect on retrieval. While De Quervain and colleagues (2000) have used a similar paradigm using glucocorticoid administration as the manipulation, this study is the first to do so using a psychological stressor to investigate the effects of stress and endogeneously-released cortisol on each memory phase in a human sample.


De Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

Anmerkungen

Mostly taken verbatim without the source being named.

Interestingly one cannot find the parallel text in the publication Beckner et al. (2006), which is mentioned by the author.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[3.] Jm/Fragment 040 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-17 20:55:36 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 40, Zeilen: 20-25
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 524, Zeilen: left col. 25-28.49-55 - right col. 1-3
Results provided support for the facilitative effect of stress and endogenous cortisol on the consolidation of new information, providing the first evidence that stress enhances the consolidation of verbal information. Indeed, this evidence for a facilitative effect of stress on the consolidation of verbal memory stood in contrast with much of the literature. Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both [psychosocial stress (Jelicic [sic], Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although it is pertinent to note that these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval.]

Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343–1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O.T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D.H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L.J., Den Boer, J.A., Meijman, T.F., Korf, J. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167-173.

Wolf, O.T., Convit, A., McHugh, P.F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E.L., De Santi, S., McEwen, B.S., & de Leon, M.J. (2001a). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioural Neuroscience, 105, 1002-1011.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., McEwen, B.S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001b). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

The results provide support for the facilitative effect of stress and endogenous cortisol on the consolidation of new information — and provide the first evidence of this for verbal information by using a stress manipulation. [...]

Indeed, our evidence for a facilitative effect of stress on the consolidation of verbal memory is a new finding and in contrast to much of the literature. Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both psychosocial stress (Jelici, Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf, Schommer, et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval.


Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343–1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L. J., Den Boer, J. A., Meijman, T. F., et al. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167–173.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711–720.

Anmerkungen

At the end of the paragraph on the following page the source is named (cp. Jm/Fragment_041_01). Otherwise nothing is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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