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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 045 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-20 23:46:26 Schumann
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, Lee 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 45, Zeilen: 1-25
Quelle: Lee 2009
Seite(n): 2,3, Zeilen: 2: 29-44; 3: 5-12, 14-17
[However, Tronel and colleagues (2005), in a study adopting inhibitory avoidance learning in rats, did not find evidence that] reconsolidation is functionally involved in linking new information to a reactivated memory. Using the doubly dissociable mechanisms of inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation and reconsolidation, these researchers demonstrated that second-order conditioning recruited consolidation processes in a selective manner. However, according to Tronson and Taylor (2007), linking new information to an old memory can be conceptualized as new learning based upon evoked memories, which would be expected to necessitate consolidation mechanisms rather than true memory updating. Lee (2008) recently directly addressed the functional role of memory reconsolidation employing the doubly dissociable mechanisms of consolidation and reconsolidation in hippocampal contextual fear memories, finding that a basic form of memory updating, namely strengthening through a further learning episode, was selectively dependent upon reconsolidation mechanisms. Thus, as suggested by Lee(2009), memory reconsolidation might prove to be the mechanism by which memories are updated through further experience, although it remains to be determined whether reconsolidation has a similar functional role in other forms of memory updating, such as memory weakening or changes in memory content.

Although the mechanisms of memory reconsolidation largely recapitulate those of initial consolidation, there are notable dissociations between the two (see Moore & Roche, 2007 and Alberini, 2005 for a comprehensive review). In particular, there is evidence that reconsolidation recruits specific mechanisms that are not crucially involved in consolidation. The reconsolidation, but not consolidation, of discrete fear memories is vulnerable to ßadrenoceptor blockade (Debiec & LeDoux, 2004). Moreover, the cellular mechanisms of memory consolidation and reconsolidation for both contextual fear (Lee et al., 2004) and inhibitory avoidance (Taubenfeld et al., 2001; Milekic et al., 2007) are doubly dissociable. As such, reconsolidation is a neurobiologically distinct memory process, which is [increasingly associated with specific cellular mechanisms, such as the expression of the immediate-early gene zif268 (Lee et al., 2004, 2005).]

[page 2]

Moreover, a prior study of inhibitory avoidance learning in rats did not provide evidence that reconsolidation is functionally involved in linking new information to a reactivated memory [19]. Using the doubly dissociable mechanisms of inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation and reconsolidation, Tronel et al. showed that second-order conditioning recruited consolidation processes selectively [19]. However, linking new information to an old memory can be viewed simply as new learning based upon evoked memories, which would be expected to necessitate consolidation mechanisms, rather than true memory updating [5]. In a study designed to address directly the functional role of memory reconsolidation, I similarly capitalised on the doubly dissociable mechanisms of consolidation and reconsolidation in hippocampal contextual fear memories. A simple form of memory updating, namely strengthening through a further learning episode, was dependent selectively upon reconsolidation mechanisms [20]. Therefore, memory reconsolidation may well prove to be the mechanism by which memories are updated through further experience, though it remains to be determined whether reconsolidation plays a similar functional role in other forms of memory updating, such as memory weakening or changes in memory content.

[page 3]

Indeed, although the mechanisms of memory reconsolidation largely recapitulate those of initial consolidation, there are notable dissociations between the two (See Alberini, 2005 [6] for a comprehensive review). In particular, there is evidence that reconsolidation recruits specific mechanisms that are not critically involved in consolidation. The reconsolidation, but not consolidation, of discrete fear memories is vulnerable to β-adrenergic receptor blockade [21]. Moreover, the cellular mechanisms of memory consolidation and reconsolidation for both contextual fear [22] and inhibitory avoidance [23, 24] are doubly dissociable. [Such double dissociations rule out simple quantitative or non-specific factors, such as time or the absence of the highly motivating footshock reinforcer, as being the cause of differences between the mechamisms of consolidation and reconsolidation.] Therefore, reconsolidation is a neurobiologically-distinct memory process, which is beginning to be associated with specific cellular mechanisms, such as the expression of the immediate-early gene zif268 [22, 25].


5. Tronson NC, Taylor JR. Molecular mechanisms of memory reconsolidation. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007; 8:262–275. [PubMed: 17342174]

6. Alberini CM. Mechanisms of memory stabilization: are consolidation and reconsolidation similar or distinct processes? Trends Neurosci. 2005; 28:51–56. [PubMed: 15626497]

19. Tronel S, et al. Linking new information to a reactivated memory requires consolidation and not reconsolidation mechanisms. PLoS Biol. 2005; 3:e293. [PubMed: 16104829]

20. Lee JLC. Memory reconsolidation mediates the strengthening of memories by additional learning. Nat Neurosci. 2008; 11:1264–1266. [PubMed: 18849987]

21. Debiec J, LeDoux JE. Disruption of reconsolidation but not consolidation of auditory fear conditioning by noradrenergic blockade in the amygdala. Neuroscience. 2004; 129:267–272. [PubMed: 15501585]

22. Lee JLC, et al. Independent cellular processes for hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Science. 2004; 304:839–843. [PubMed: 15073322]

23. Taubenfeld SM, et al. The consolidation of new but not reactivated memory requires hippocampal C/EBP beta. Nat Neurosci. 2001; 4:813–818. [PubMed: 11477427]

24. Milekic MH, et al. Temporal requirement of C/EBPbeta in the amygdala following reactivation but not acquisition of inhibitory avoidance. Learn Mem. 2007; 14:504–511. [PubMed: 17644752]

25. Lee JLC, et al. Disrupting reconsolidation of drug memories reduces cocaine seeking behavior. Neuron. 2005; 47:795–801. [PubMed: 16157275]

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